Encyclopedia of Geropsychology

Editors: Nancy A. Pachana

Autism Spectrum Disorder

  • Ye In (Jane) Hwang
  • Kitty-Rose Foley
  • Julian Trollor
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-287-080-3_305-1

Synonyms

Definition

Autism spectrum disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is both high in prevalence and most commonly lifelong in nature. Despite this, there is a dearth of available information regarding the disorder in later life. Existing evidence indicates poor outcomes in adult life in a range of areas of health and wellbeing, though more information is needed to create a more comprehensive understanding of the circumstances and needs of autistic adults as they age.

Introduction

The lifelong nature of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) attests to the need for a thorough understanding of the condition throughout the lifespan. This entry will summarize the extant knowledge regarding ASD in later life. It will begin with a brief discussion of the conceptual and diagnostic background of ASD...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access

References

  1. American Psychiatric Association. (1980). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-III. Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  2. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-V) (5th ed.). Arlington: American Psychiatric Publishing.Google Scholar
  3. Baird, G., Simonoff, E., Pickles, A., Chandler, S., Loucas, T., & Meldrum, D. (2006). Prevalence of disorders of the autism spectrum in a population cohort of children in South Thames: The Special Needs and Autism Project (SNAP). Lancet, 368, 210–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bilder, D., Botts, E. L., Smith, K. R., Pimentel, R., Farley, M., Viskochil, J., et al. (2013). Excess mortality and causes of death in autism spectrum disorders: A follow up of the 1980s Utah/UCLA autism epidemiologic study. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 43(5), 1196–1204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bowling, A., Iliffe, S. (2011). Psychological approach to successful ageing predicts future quality of life in older adults. Health and Quality Life Outcomes [Internet]. BioMed Central Ltd. 9(1), 13. Available from: http://www.hqlo.com/content/9/1/13
  6. Brugha, T. S., McManus, S., Bankart, J., Scott, F., Purdon, S., Smith, J., et al. (2011). Epidemiology of Autism spectrum disorders in adults in the community in England. Archives of General Psychiatry, 68(3), 459–466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Burgess, A. F., & Gutstein, S. E. (2007). Quality of life for people with autism: Raising the standard for evaluating successful outcomes. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 12(2), 80–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Crane, L., Goddard, L., & Pring, L. (2009). Sensory processing in adults with autism spectrum disorders. SAGE Publications, 13(3), 215–228.Google Scholar
  9. Croen, L. A., Zerbo, O., Qian, Y., Massolo, M. L., Rich, S., Sidney, S., et al. (2015). The health status of adults on the autism spectrum. Autism [Internet], Available from: http://aut.sagepub.com/cgi/doi/10.1177/1362361315577517
  10. Dawson, G., & Watling, R. (2000). Interventions to facilitate auditory, visual, and motor integration in autism: A review of the evidence. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 30(5), 415–421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Esbensen, A. J., Greenberg, J. S., Seltzer, M. M., & Aman, M. G. (2009). A longitudinal investigation of psychotropic and non-psychotropic medication use among adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39, 1339–1349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Freedman, V. A. (2014). Research gaps in the demography of aging with disability. Disabilities and Health Journal [Internet]. Elsevier Inc. 7(Suppl 1), S60–63. Available from:  10.1016/j.dhjo.2013.04.009
  13. Geurts, H. M., Vissers, M. E. (2012). Elderly with autism: Executive functions and memory. Journa of Autism and Developmental Disords [Internet], 42(5), 665–675. Available from: http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s10803-011-1291-0
  14. Ghaziuddin, M., & Zafar, S. (2008). Psychiatric comorbidity of adults with autism spectrum disorders. Clinical Neuropsychiatry, 5(1), 9–12.Google Scholar
  15. Griffith, G. M., Totsika, V., Nash, S., & Hastings, R. P. (2012). “I just don’t fit anywhere”: Support experiences and future support needs of individuals with Asperger syndrome in middle adulthood. Autism, 16(5), 532–546.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Henninger, N. A., Taylor, J. L. (2013). Outcomes in adults with autism spectrum disorders: a historical perspective. Autism, 17(1), 103–116. doi: 10.1177/1362361312441266.Google Scholar
  17. Hirvikoski, T., Mittendorfer-Rutz, E., Boman, M., Larsson, H., Lichtenstein, P., & Bö, S. (2015). Premature mortality in autism spectrum disorder. The British Journal of Psychiatry. http://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.bp.114.160192.
  18. Hill, E. L. (2004). Executive dysfunction in autism. Trends in Cognitive Sciences [Internet], 8(1), 26–32. Available from: http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1364661303003152
  19. Hofvander, B., Delorme, R., Chaste, P., Nydén, A., Wentz, E., Ståhlberg, O., et al. (2009). Psychiatric and psychosocial problems in adults with normal-intelligence autism spectrum disorders. BMC Psychiatry [Internet], 9(1), 35. Available from: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-244X/9/35. [cited 2015 Jul 19].
  20. Howlin, P., Moss, P., Savage, S., & Rutter, M. (2013). Social outcomes in mid- to later adulthood among individuals diagnosed with autism and average nonverbal IQ as children. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 52(6), 572–581.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hutton, J., Goode, S., Murphy, M., Le Couteur, A., Rutter, M. (2008). New-onset psychiatric disorders in individuals with autism. Autism [Internet], 12(4), 373–390. Available from: http://aut.sagepub.com/cgi/doi/10.1177/1362361308091650
  22. Jones, K. B., Cottle, K., Bakian, A., Farley, M., Bilder, D., Coon, H., et al. (2015). A description of medical conditions in adults with autism spectrum disorder: A follow-up of the 1980s Utah/UCLA Autism Epidemiologic Study. Autism [Internet], Available from: http://aut.sagepub.com/cgi/doi/10.1177/1362361315594798
  23. Kanner, L. (1943). Autistic disturbance of affective contact. The Nervous Child, 2, 217–249.Google Scholar
  24. Kenny, L., Hattersley, C., Molins, B., Buckley, C., Povey, C., Pellicano, E. (2016). Which terms should be used to describe autism? Perspectives from the UK autism community. Autism, 20(4):442–62. Available from: http://aut.sagepub.com/cgi/doi/10.1177/1362361315588200.
  25. Mouridsen, S. E., Bronnum-Hansen, H., Rich, B., Isager, T. (2008). Mortality and causes of death in autism spectrum disorders: An update. Autism [Internet], 12(4), 403–414. Available from: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=ip,cookie,url,uid&db=psyh&AN=2008-10037-006&lang=es&site=ehost-live
  26. Mukaetova-Ladinska, E. B., Perry, E., Baron, M., & Povey, C. (2012). Autism Ageing Writing Group. Ageing in people with autistic spectrum disorder. Geriatr Psychiatry, 27, 109–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Oberman, L. M., & Pascual-Leone, A. (2014). Hyperpasticity in autism spectrum disorder confers protection from Alzheimer’s disease. Medical Hypotheses, 83(3), 337–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Pan, C.-Y. (2008). Objectively measured physical activity between children with autism spectrum disorders and children without disabilities during inclusive recess settings in Taiwan. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38(7), 1292–1301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Pellicano, E. (2010). Individual difference in executive function and central coherence predict developmental changes in theory of mind in autism. Developmental Psychology, 46, 530–544.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Renty, J., & Roeyers, H. (2006). Quality of life in high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder: The predictive value of disability and support characteristics. Autism, 10(5), 511–524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Robertson, A. E., & Simmons, D. R. (2015). The sensory experiences of adults with autism spectrum disorder: A qualitative analysis. Perception, 44, 569–586.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Roth, L. (2013). Autism spectrum disorder (pp. 1–30). NSW Parliamentary Research Service, New South Wales Australia.Google Scholar
  33. Rowe, J. W., & Kahn, R. L. (1987). Human aging: Usual and successful. Science (80-), 237(4811), 143–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Schendel, D. E., Overgaard, M., Christensen, J., Hjort, L., Jørgensen, M., Vestergaard, M., et al. (2016). Association of psychiatric and neurologic comorbidity with mortality among persons with autism spectrum disorder in a Danish population. JAMA Pediatrics [Internet], 170(3), 1–8. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26752506
  35. Seltzer, M. M., Shattuck, P. T., Abbeduto, L., & Greenberg, J. S. (2004). Trajectory of development in adolescents and adults with autism. Mental Retardation Development Disabilities, 10, 234–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Shattuck, P. T., Seltzer, M. M., Greenberg, J. S., Orsmond, G. I., Bolt, D., Kring, S., et al. (2007). Change in autism symptoms and maladaptive behaviors in adolescents and adults with an autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37(9), 1735–1747.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Shattuck, P. T., Roux, A. M., Hudson, L. E., Lounds Taylor, J., Maenner, M. J., & Trani, J.-F. (2012). Services for adults with an autism spectrum disorder. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 57, 284–291.Google Scholar
  38. Sheehan, R., Hassiotis, A., Walters, K., Osborn, D., Strydom, A., Horsfall, L. (2015). Mental illness, challenging behaviour, and psychotropic drug prescribing in people with intellectual disability: UK population based cohort study. Bmj [Internet], h4326. Available from: http://www.bmj.com/lookup/doi/10.1136/bmj.h4326
  39. Simonoff, E., Pickles, A., Charman, T., Chandler, S., Loucas, T., & Baird, G. (2008). Psychiatric disorders in children with autism spectrum disorders: Prevalence, comorbidity and associated factors in a population-derive sample. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 47, 921–929.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Stuart Hamilton, I., Morgan, H. (2011). What happens to people with autism spectrum disorders in middle age and beyond? Report of a preliminary on-line study. Advances in Mental Health Intellectual Disabilites [Internet], 5(2), 22–28. Available from:  10.5042/amhid.2011.0109\ http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?articleid=1928044&show=abstract
  41. Tobin, M. C., Drager, K. D. R., Richardson, L. F. (2014). A systematic review of social participation for adults with autism spectrum disorders: Support, social functioning, and quality of life. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders [Internet]. Elsevier Ltd, 8(3), 214–229. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1750946713002419
  42. Totsika, V., Felce, D., Kerr, M., & Hastings, R. P. (2010). Behaviour problems, psychiatric symptoms, and quality of life for older adults with intellectual disability with and without autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40, 1171–1178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. van Heijst, B. F., Geurts, H. M. (2014). Quality of life in autism across the lifespan: A meta-analysis. Autism [Internet], 19(2), 158–167. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24443331
  44. Volkmar, F. R., McPartland, J. C. (2014). From Kanner to DSM-5: Autism as an evolving diagnostic concept. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology [Internet], 10, 193–212. Available from: http://www.annualreviews.org.simsrad.net.ocs.mq.edu.au/doi/pdf/10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-032813-153710 [cited 2015 Mar 3].
  45. Warfield, M. E., Crossman, M. K., Delahaye, J., Der Weerd, E., Kuhlthau, K, A. (2015). Physician perspectives on providing primary medical care to adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Journal of Autism Development and Disorders [Internet]. Springer US. 2209–2217. Available from: http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s10803-015-2386-9
  46. Wing, L., & Gould, J. (1979). Severe impairments of social interaction and associated abnormalities in children: Epidemiology and classification. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 9(1), 11–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Yamaki, K. (2005). Body weight status among adults with intellectual disability in the community. Mental Retardation [Internet], 43(1), 1–10. Available from: http://www.aaiddjournals.org/doi/pdf/10.1352/0047-6765(2005)43<1:BWSAAW>2.0.CO;2

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Singapore 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ye In (Jane) Hwang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Kitty-Rose Foley
    • 1
    • 2
  • Julian Trollor
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Developmental Disability NeuropsychiatrySchool of Psychiatry, UNSW AustraliaSydneyAustralia
  2. 2.Cooperative Research Centre for Living with Autism (Autism CRC)Long PocketBrisbaneAustralia