School Education System in Pakistan
- 505 Downloads
In Pakistan, all children between 5 and 16 years of age have the right to 12 years of school education. The public school system is the main provider of schooling. Pakistan takes explicit account of gender in the provision of schooling, especially in public schools at post-primary levels, with girls’ schools with female teachers and boys’ schools with male teachers.
While the policy context has always been supportive of universal school education, there is a significant gap in access, especially for girls at post-primary levels. The private sector has an increasingly large share in education with strong public–private partnership models to enhance access to quality education for the needy. Mostly, the medium of instruction is Urdu in public schools and English in private schools.
This chapter describes the school education system in Pakistan and provides insights into issues of access, expansion, and equity in the specific sociocultural and language context of the country.
KeywordsSchool education Universal education Pakistan Public–private schooling Language of instruction Gender and schooling
- AEPAM. (2013). Pakistan Education Statistics 2012–13. Academy of Education Planning and Management (AEPAM). Islamabad: Ministry of Professional and Technical Training Government of Pakistan. Retrieved from http://library.aepam.edu.pk/.
- Ahmed, S. A. Cho, Y., & Fasih, T. (2019). Pakistan@100 human capital. Policy note. World Bank Group. Retrieved April 9, 2020, from http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/181471552638661744/pdf/135324-14-3-2019-20-35-15-PakPNHumanCapitalLaunchFinal.pdf
- Aly, J. (2007). Education in Pakistan: A white paper: Revised: Document to debate and finalize the national education policy. Retrieved December 19, 2018, from http://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/sites/planipolis/files/ressources/pakistan_national_education_policy_review_whitepaper.pdf
- ASER. (2019). Annual Status of Education Report 2018 (provisional). Islamabad: Idara Taleem O Agahi. Retrieved March 6, 2020, from http://aserpakistan.org/document/aser/2018/reports/national/ASER_National_2018.pdf
- ASER-Pakistan. (2017). Annual Status of Education Report (ASER) 2017. Islamabad: South Asian Forum for Education Development. Retrieved from http://aserpakistan.org/report.
- Ashley, D., Mcloughlin, C., Aslam, M., Engel, J., Wales, J., Rawal, S., Batley, R., Kingdon, G., Nicolai, S., & Rose, P. (2014). The role and impact of private schools in developing countries: A rigorous review of the evidence. Final report. Education Rigorous Literature Review. Department for International Development. The EPPI-Centre reference number for this report is 2206.Google Scholar
- Asian Development Bank. (2019). School education in Pakistan: A sector assessment. Manila: Asian Development Bank. https://doi.org/10.22617/TCS190039. Retrieved February 6, 2019, from https://www.adb.org/documents/pakistan-school-education-sector-assessment. ISBN 978-92-9261-528-4 (print), 978-92-9261-529-1 (electronic).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Aslam, M., Rawal, S., & Sahar, S. (n.d.). Public private partnerships in education in developing countries. A rigorous review of literature. Retrieved April 6, 2020, from https://arkonline.org/sites/default/files/Ark_EPG_PPP_report.pdf
- Channa, A. (2011). Can school decentralization improve learning? Autonomy, participation and student achievement in rural Pakistan. Working papers series no. 11–115. ISSN 1470–2320. Retrieved March 6, 2020, from https://www.files.ethz.ch/isn/135133/WP115.pdf
- Dawn. (2019, July 19). Urdu to be medium of instruction in primary schools. https://www.dawn.com/news/1496641
- Durrani, N., & Halai, A. (2020). Gender equality, education, and development: Tensions between global, national, and local policy discourses in postcolonial contexts. In A. Wulff (Ed.), Grading goal four: Tensions, threats and opportunities in the sustainable development goal on quality education (pp. 65–95). Leiden: Brill Publishers. https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004430365_003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Durrani, N., Halai, A., Kadiwal, L., Rajput, S. K., Novelli, M., & Sayed, Y. (2017). Education and social cohesion in Pakistan. Project report. UNICEF. http://sro.sussex.ac.uk/id/eprint/67152/1/__smbhome.uscs.susx.ac.uk_dm50_Desktop_Pakistan%20Summary%20Report_March2017.pdf
- Gordon, R. G. Jr (2005). Ethnologue: Languages of the world (15th ed.). Dallas: SIL International. Online version http://www.ethnologue.com
- Government of Pakistan. (1977). The fifth plan 1977–1983 (Vol. 2). Islamabad: Planning Commission.Google Scholar
- Government of Pakistan, Pakistan Bureau of Statistics. (2015). Pakistan Social and Living Standards Measurement Survey (PSLM) 2013–2014. Islamabad. Retrieved April 9, 2020, from http://www.pbs.gov.pk/sites/default/files//pslm/publications/pslm2013_14/A%20report%2013-14%28%2012-05-15%29_FInal_1.pdf
- Halai, A. (2009). Politics and practice of learning mathematics in multilingual classrooms: Issues for policy and practice. In R. Barwell (Ed.), Multilingualism in mathematics classrooms: Global perspectives (pp. 47–62). London: Multilingual Matters. ISBN-13: 978-1-84769-205-4 (hbk) ISBN-13: 978-1-84769-204- (pbk).Google Scholar
- Halai, A., & Muzaffar, I. (2015). Language of instruction and learners’ participation in mathematics: Dynamics of distributive justice in the classroom. In A. Halai & P. Clarkson (Eds.), Teaching and learning mathematics in multilingual classrooms: Issues for policy and practice (pp. 57–72). Rotterdam: SENSE Publishers. ISBN 978-94-6300-228-8.Google Scholar
- I-SAPS. (2010). Private sector education in Pakistan: Mapping and musing. Islamabad: Institute of Policy Sciences (I-SAPS). ISBN: 978-969-9393-05-1. Retrieved February 5, 2020, from http://isaps.org/upload/report_publications/docs/1401025704.pdf
- I-SAPS. (2013). Public financing of education in Pakistan: Analysis of federal, provincial and district budgets 2010–11 to 2013–14. Islamabad: Institute of Policy Sciences (I-SAPS). Retrieved April 11, 2020, from http://i-saps.org/upload/report_publications/docs/1402576195.pdf
- I-SAPS. (2016a). Public financing of education in Pakistan: Analysis of federal, provincial and district budgets 2010–11 to 2016–17. Islamabad: Institute of Policy Sciences (I-SAPS). Retrieved April 9, 2020, from http://i-saps.org/upload/report_publications/docs/1496496299.pdf
- I-SAPS. (2016b). Gender responsive financing of education in Pakistan: A comparative analysis of Punjab and Sindh. Islamabad: I-SAPS.Google Scholar
- Jacoby, H. G., & Mansuri, G. (2011). Crossing boundaries: Gender, caste and schooling in rural Pakistan. Policy research working paper 5710. The World Bank. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/941421468073730366/pdf/WPS5710.pdf. Accessed 15 Mar 2020.
- Khan, A., Zuberi, S., Mehmood, R., & Khan, R. (2015). Best practices in girls’ enrolment in Pakistan. The Citizens Foundation: A case study. Retrieved March 06, 2020, from http://www.researchcollective.org/Documents/TCF_UNGEI_Final.pdf
- Lall, M. (2009). Creating agents of positive change. The Citizens Foundation in Pakistan. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/241616857. Accessed 22 Feb 2020.
- Lewis, M. P. (2009). Ethnologue: Languages of the world (16th ed.). Dallas: SIL International. http://www.ethnologue.com/
- MET and SHE. (2013). National plan of action 2013–2016: Achieving universal primary education in Pakistan. MDG acceleration framework. Ministry of Education, Trainings and Standards in Higher Education.Google Scholar
- Ministry of Education. (1959). Report of the Commission on National Education. Karachi: Ministry of Education, Government of Pakistan.Google Scholar
- Ministry of Education. (1972). National Education Policy 1972–80. Islamabad: Ministry of Education, Government of Pakistan.Google Scholar
- Ministry of Education. (1979). National Education Policy and implementation programme. Islamabad: Ministry of Education, Government of Pakistan.Google Scholar
- Ministry of Education. (1992). National Education Policy. Islamabad: Ministry of Education, Government of Pakistan.Google Scholar
- Ministry of Education. (1998). National Education Policy 1998–2010. Islamabad: Ministry of Education, Government of Pakistan.Google Scholar
- Ministry of Education (2009). National Education Policy. Islamabad: Ministry of Education, Government of Pakistan. Retrieved October 26, 2014, from http://www.moe.gov.pk/
- Ministry of Education. (2014). Education for all 2015. National review report, Pakistan.Google Scholar
- Ministry of Education and Scientific Research. (1970). The New Education Policy. Islamabad: Ministry of Education and Scientific Research, Government of Pakistan.Google Scholar
- Ministry of Federal Education and Professional Training. (2017). Draft National Education Policy 2017–2025. Islamabad: Ministry of Federal Education and Professional Training, Government of Pakistan. Retrieved March 14, 2020, from http://mofept.gov.pk/Policies
- Ministry of Interior. (1947). Proceedings of the Pakistan educational conference, Nov 27–Dec 1, 1947. Karachi: Ministry of the Interior (Education Division), Government of Pakistan.Google Scholar
- NEMIS–AEPAM. (2015a). Pakistan Education Atlas 2015. Islamabad: Ministry of Federal Education and Professional Training.Google Scholar
- NEMIS–AEPAM. (2015b). Pakistan Education Statistics 2013–14. Islamabad: Ministry of Federal Education & Professional Training.Google Scholar
- NEMIS–AEPAM. (2018). Pakistan Education Statistics 2016–17. Islamabad: National Education Management Information System–Academy of Educational Planning and Management Ministry of Federal Education and Professional Training, Government of Pakistan. Retrieved February 21, 2020, from http://library.aepam.edu.pk/Books/Pakistan%20Education%20Statistics%202016-17.pdf
- Newman, J. (2012). Human Opportunity Index (HOI) – National equality of children’s opportunities in Pakistan. Washington, DC: The World Bank.Google Scholar
- Pakistan Bureau of Statistics. (2014). Compendium on gender statistics of Pakistan. Islamabad: Pakistan Bureau of Statistics, Government of Pakistan.Google Scholar
- Pakistan Bureau of Statistics. (n.d.). Pakistan statistical year book 2018 (provisional). Islamabad: Pakistan Bureau of Statistics, Government of Pakistan. Retrieved February 24, 2020, from http://www.pbs.gov.pk/sites/default/files//PAKISTAN%20STATISTICAL%20YEAR%20BOOK%202018.pdf
- Pardhan, S., Shah, A., Saad, S., Panah, K., Zaman, M., & Khan, K. (2012). A journey of transformation: A reflective recount of the evolution of AKES’P. In In search of relevance and sustainability of educational change: An international conference at Aga Khan University Institute for Educational Development, Nov 1–3, 2012, pp. 482–487. Available at: http://ecommons.aku.edu/pakistan_ied_pdck/227
- PEELI. (2013). Punjab Education and English Language Initiative. British Council Pakistan. https://www.britishcouncil.pk/sites/default/files/can_english_medium_education work in Pakistan British council 2013.pdf
- SAHE. (2013). Policy and practice: Teaching and learning in English in Punjab schools. Lahore: Society for Advancement of Education (SAHE). https://www.sef.org.pk
- SAHE. (2014). Teaching and learning English in Sindh school. Lahore: Society for Advancement of Education (SAHE). http://www.sahe.org.pk/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/Teaching-and-Learning-English-in-Sindh-Schools-2014-1.pdf. Accessed 06 Mar 2020.Google Scholar
- SAHE. (2015). Education Monitor. Education in Pakistan: The state’s engagement with the private sector. Lahore: Society for Advancement of Education. https://www.sahe.org.pk/policy-brief-education-monitor-the-states-engagement-with-the-private-sector/. Accessed 29 Feb 2020.Google Scholar
- Siddiqui, S. (2016). Education policies in Pakistan: Politics, projections and practices. Karachi: Oxford University Press Pakistan. ISBN 978-0-19-940207-6.Google Scholar
- Sindh Education Profile. (2016–2017). School Education and Literacy Department, Government of Sindh. http://rsu-sindh.gov.pk/sep/. Accessed 6 Mar 2020.
- Singal, N., Sabates, R., Aslam, A., & Saeed, S. (2018). School enrolment and learning outcomes for children with disabilities: Findings from a household survey in Pakistan. International Journal of Inclusive Education. https://doi.org/10.1080/13603116.2018.1531944.
- Tabassum, R., Zahid, J., & Saleem, K. (2016). Gaps and challenges in public financing of education in Pakistan. Discussion paper no. 2. Islamabad: Sustainable Development Policy Institute.Google Scholar
- UNDP. (2017). Pakistan Human Development Report 2017. Unleashing the potential of young Pakistan. Islamabad: UNDP Pakistan. ISBN: 978-969-8736-19-4. https://www.undp.org/content/dam/pakistan/docs/HDR/PK-NHDR.pdf. Accessed 6 Mar 2020.Google Scholar
- UNDP. (2019). Human Development Report 2019. Beyond income, beyond averages, beyond today: Inequalities in human development in the 21st century. New York: UNDP. http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/hdr2019.pdf. Accessed 20 Feb 2020.Google Scholar
- UNESCO. (2018). Girls’ right to education in Pakistan. Islamabad: UNESCO.Google Scholar
- UNESCO. (2019). UNESCO Pakistan country strategic document 2018–2022. Islamabad: UNESCO.Google Scholar
- UNESCO Institute of Statistics. (n.d.). http://uis.unesco.org/en/country/pk. Accessed 20 Feb 2020.
- UNESCO, & UNICEF. (2014). Non-formal education as a means to meet learning needs of out-of-school children and adolescents (pp. 4–7). Montreal: UIS.Google Scholar