To protect the ecological environment and maintain the harmonious development of humans and nature, ecological protection costs and development opportunity costs are considered to evaluate the environmental impacts of projects. Government finances and market instruments have been adopted to regulate fair and just transfer payments among ecological protection stakeholders. The general idea of ecological compensation is to reward those who help to protect the ecosystem and natural resources and to compensate for the damage caused by human activities. These rewards and compensation can be provided by taxes and fees imposed on those causing ecological damage and environmental pollution. The theoretical basis for ecological compensation is the ecological environmental value theory.