Reference work entry
Diamond is also known as ‘Jingang’ diamond in Chinese, which means ‘gold and hard rock’. It is composed of carbon, and it is the hardest mineral in nature. It has a refractive index up to 2.4, and so it can reflect almost all incident light. When polished, it is so lustrous that it radiates numerous colours, and hence it was given the name the ‘king of gemstones’. The largest diamond was found in 1905 in Cullinan, South Africa. It weighed 3,106 carats and was cut into nine stones, the largest of which weighed 530.2 carats, was named the ‘Star of Africa’ and was set in the sceptre of the king of the United Kingdom. China’s largest diamond was found in 1977 in Chang Lin Village in Linshu County, Shandong Province. It weighs 158.786 carats, was named the ‘Chang Lin Diamond’ and is now stored in China’s central bank. Diamonds are mainly found in kimberlites and the associated secondary placer deposits. Currently, the main production areas are Congo (Kinshasa), South Africa, Russia,...
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