Wavy Flow Mark Landscape
Reference work entry
This is a landscape composed of wave-like concave depressions on karst cave walls (mainly near the cave mouth) that are formed by dissolution and erosion by turbulent water. These flow marks are often in clusters. Their longitudinal profile is asymmetrical with a long and gentle profile against the waterflow but a short and steep profile in the waterflow direction. The current flow direction can be determined based on the principle that the arc-shaped ridge line always points upstream. Therefore, a wavy flow mark is also called a directional flow mark. Wavy flow marks can be characterised by their wavy pattern, such as the wavelength, wave height and wave width. The wavelength is the crucial element and can range from 1–2 cm to more than 1 m. The wavelength is inversely proportional to the water flow rate. The flow velocity can be calculated from the wavelength, viscosity coefficient and water temperature. For example, in the cave of the Guilin karst peak forest plain, the flow marks...
© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020