Reference work entry
Volcanic hazards are natural disasters caused by volcanic eruptions. Volcanic eruptions can cause direct disasters as well as indirect disasters due to the abrupt change in climate. Volcanic hazards generally include the following: (1) damage caused by volcanic debris flows; (2) damage caused by lava flows; (3) damage caused by volcanic landslides and mud and rock flows; (4) damage caused by falling volcanic ash and volcanic debris; (5) damage induced by volcanic gases and the associated aerosols; (6) volcanic earthquake disasters; (7) damage induced by volcanic shock waves; (8) tsunamis caused by earthquakes; and (9) flight safety threatened by high-altitude volcanic ash. Ruins from volcanic hazards can remain, such as Pompeii, which has become a popular tourist’s attraction for science education (Fig. 10).
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