Upper Cave Man Site
Reference work entry
The Upper Cave Man site is a site of ancient human fossils that was found in 1933 in a limestone cave at spot number 1 in Zhoukoudian, Fangshan, Beijing. Ten individual human fossils have been excavated, including 3 complete skulls. The skull morphology indicates that the Upper Cave Man’s appearance was similar to that of modern man and that it was a late Homo sapiens. In addition to the stone and bone artefacts, many decorations dyed in red have been found in the cave. They include fish bones with holes, clam shells, animal teeth and stone beads, and they are proof of artistic activities carried out by the Upper Cave Man. The site belongs to the Late Palaeolithic culture. This cave also contains 47 species of mammal fossils, including extinct species of Crocuta ultima, Ursus spelaeus and ostriches. Unfortunately, the Upper Cave Man fossils were lost with the Peking Man skull (Fig. 1).
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