Dictionary of Geotourism

2020 Edition
| Editors: Anze Chen, Young Ng, Erkuang Zhang, Mingzhong Tian

Tundra Ecosystem Landscape

Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-2538-0_2620

A tundra, also called a ‘moss plain’, is a typical cold climate ecosystem. Tundras are mainly located in the northern fringes of Eurasia and North America, forming a roughly contiguous tundra belt. In tundras, the winters are cold and long, and the summers are cool and short. The annual precipitation is 200–300 mm, and the wind is strong. Permafrost is always present beneath the surface soil. The cold wet environment often results in physiological drought for plants. The community structure is simple, usually comprising only 1–2 layers. The plant species composition is very poor, with approximately 100–200 species, which are mainly mosses and lichens, perennial cyperaceous, gramineous, Ranunculaceae and cruciferous herbs and Salicaceae, heather and Betulaceae dwarf shrubs. They are usually evergreen perennial plants with large and striking flowers. Tundra is not as monotonous or dull as the desert, but the fauna species are limited, mainly comprising reindeer, muskox, arctic fox,...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020