Sulphur Flower Landscape
Reference work entry
This is a type of sinter landscape. On the inner wall and rim of the vapour holes in an active volcanic area and a high-temperature hydrothermal activity area, needle-like or granular sulphur crystals can accumulate to form layers of sulphur flowers that are bright yellow. The sulphur may originate from volcanic and magmatic activity. The sulphur at the source has a negative bivalence and thus is stable. When it rises with the magma and reaches the sulphide-oxide interface, magma sulphur (S 2−) will separate due to the pressure drop, and some H 2S will form sulphur through incomplete oxidation. The sulphur brought to the surface has a temperature of approximately 130 °C. In this respect, sulphur flowers are a key indicator of the geothermal resource. In the hydrothermal zone, sulphur flowers and metal sulphides can be used to assess the thermal properties of the hydrothermal zone through isotope analysis. In China, sulphur flowers can be found in the volcanic areas at Wudalianchi and...
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