Reference work entry
A caldera landscape is a type of volcanic landscape consisting of large circular or near-circular volcanic depressions. Calderas form due to the collapse or subsidence of volcano top. They are large circular or near-circular depressions with uneven bottoms surrounded by steep slopes. The general characteristics of a caldera are: (1) round or nearly round in map view but sometimes with an irregular triangular shape; (2) circular or radial cracks that look like grabens or terraced faults; (3) multiple regional faults or shear bands that cut through and intersect with circular faults, leading to fragmentation of the rock formations in the crater, and intense fractures that are obviously different from the structure on the caldera periphery; (4) various types of volcanic rocks with different facies, and ignimbrite and tuff are best developed; and (5) deposition of sediments inside the caldera upon the formation of a depression after the collapse and subsidence of the caldera and the...
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