Dictionary of Geotourism

2020 Edition
| Editors: Anze Chen, Young Ng, Erkuang Zhang, Mingzhong Tian

Shield Volcano Landscape

Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-2538-0_2220
This is a type of volcanic landscape associated with broad dome-shaped and conical shield-like features with gentle slopes that form when low-viscosity magma flows along slopes from the central or lateral vents. Basaltic magma generally forms shield volcanoes. There are two types of shield volcanoes: (1) Hawaiian type: these volcanoes are large and have multiple causes of formation. Some large shield volcanoes have collapsed craters, fallen lava cones, cinder cones and smaller rock shields. The world’s largest shield volcano is the active Mauna Loa volcano. (2) Icelandic type: these volcanoes are small and have a single cause of formation. In general, they are less than 15 km wide, and the crater is less than 1 km in diameter. This type of shield volcano is almost completely symmetrical. It is formed by a central eruption that develops numerous thin pahoehoes. The crater is surrounded by fallen lavas forming the rim. The Skjald Breiduer Volcano in Iceland is a typical example of this...
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