Calcareous Tufa Landscape, Sinter Landscape
Reference work entry
In areas with rivers, springs and caves, carbonates, especially calcium carbonate, can precipitate and deposit to form this type of sinter landform with porous sediments. Based on the formation environment, sinters can be divided into two kinds: (1) Chemically formed carbonate rocks that precipitate from the surface water or groundwater with high calcium carbonate content. Mosses, lichens and other organisms also play a role in their formation. This type of sinter commonly forms on slopes with flowing water or at the spring outlets. It is irregular in shape and loose with many pores. An example is the abundant calcareous sinters along Qikongxiao Stream in the Maolan Nature Reserve area in Guizhou Province. (2) In karst areas with unique formation conditions (such as active fault zones), karst springs often contain high concentrations of carbon dioxide and calcium-magnesium ions. When groundwater flows from the relatively enclosed environment, a large amount of carbon dioxide is...
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