Synonym: Coniferous forest
This term generally refers to cold temperate coniferous forests, also known as taiga, that are located in cold temperate regions between 45 and 70° N. They consist of pinus, picea, abies and larch. Larch forests are called ‘bright coniferous forests’, while evergreen spruce forests and fir forests are called ‘dark coniferous forests’. In addition to the cold temperate zones, cold temperate coniferous forests are located in subtropical sub-alpine zones in warm temperate zones. Therefore, they can be considered to be cold-temperate zone vegetation in the vertical zones. In addition, pine forests and Chinese fir forests in low mountainous and hilly subtropical regions are considered warm coniferous forests.