Reference work entry
This is the name for the Late Pleistocene loess layer proposed by Liu Dongshan and Zhang Zongji in 1962. The typical profile is on the second terrace along the right bank of the Qingshui River in Zhaitang, Beijing. It mainly consists of loose, porous silt with a homogeneous texture with vertical joints and a few scattered small calcareous nodules. The soil layer also contains a dark loessal palaeosol with fossils of rodents and ostrich eggs. The profile thickness varies from 2 to 5 m in the northern foothills of the Qinling Mountains and up to 59 m in the Lanzhou area. The 70–80-m-thick Malan loess of Mangshan in Zhengzhou and the 35-m-thick Malan loess in the Luochuan Loess National Geopark in western Shaanxi Province are impressive. They have recorded two dry cold climate periods 10,000–20,000 and 50,000–70,000 years ago (Fig. 6).
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