Reference work entry
Malachite is a copper mineral with a chemical composition of Cu 2[CO 3](OH) 2. Its copper content is 57.4%, and it belongs to the monoclinic system. The crystals are acicular or columnar, often with shell-like and concentric strip blocks. It has a slightly transparent to translucent diaphaneity, silky lustre, conchoidal fractures, a Mohs hardness of 3.5–4.0, a specific gravity of 3.6–4.0, a refractive index of 1.655–1.909 and a birefringence of 2.5. It foams in acid, is brittle, and is green or peacock green. It is a common material for crafting and for making pigments (Fig. 5).
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