Heard and McDonald Islands, France
These islands are located in the southern Indian Ocean approximately 4,100 km from Perth, Western Australia, and approximately 600 km from the Kerguelen Islands, and they are an extraterritorial district of France. As the only active volcanic islands in the sub-Antarctic area and a ‘window to the earth’s heart’, the site provides a unique location for scientists to observe the evolution of landforms and study glacier dynamics. Heard and McDonald Islands boast one of the few primitive island ecosystems completely free from the invasion of exotic animals and plants. In addition, they have not been affected by human activities. Therefore, they have unique natural protection value.