Reference work entry
The Hawaiian Islands are located in the middle of the Pacific Plate above a mantle hotspot. These islands were formed by volcanic eruptions of basaltic magma. The famous active Mauna Loa Volcano and Kilauea Volcano are still erupting and have become national parks and global tourist attractions. Mauna Loa Volcano has a height of 4,169 m above sea level and is more than 10,000 m high from the seafloor to the peak. It is a shield volcano. Since 1832, this volcano has erupted once every 3 years and has poured out a large amount of lava that has increased the volcano’s height and size. As such, it is also called ‘the Great Architect’. The eruption in November 1959 lasted for a month and erupted 460 million km 3of lava. Kilauea Volcano, at 1,247 m above sea level, is the second largest volcano on the islands. In the volcanism literature, pahoehoe lava (translated as string-like lava) and aa (translated as blocky lava) are local names used by native inhabitants for these features. This...
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