Practice as a Concept in Educational Technology
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Educational technology is a vibrant field of research that brings together disciplines from the humanities, social science, and computer science. Its aim is to develop the theory and practice of design, development, implementation, use, and evaluation of technologies for teaching and learning. The field is currently characterized by a lack of consensus regarding research methods, theoretical approaches, and design orientations, but its development can be described in terms of four consecutive stages with concordant shifts in research foci (Winn 2002). The field has gone from being focused on the (1) content and (2) format that characterized instructional design and message design at the end of the 1960s towards a focus on (3) interaction and (4) learning environments that has dominated the research and design of technologies in education from the late 1970s onwards (Winn 2002). Throughout this progression, two specific modes of inquiry can be distinguished, namely, a mode...
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