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Dietary Phytoecdysteroids

  • Laurence Dinan
  • Nilufar Z. Mamadalieva
  • René LafontEmail author
Living reference work entry

Abstract

Phytoecdysteroids are polyhydroxylated steroids which are widely distributed in the plant world and are present in significant amounts in 5–6% of plant species. Their major role in the plant is probably to deter invertebrate predators, but ecdysteroids also have many beneficial effects in mammals and are attracting attention as therapeutic and nutraceutical agents. Four hundred analogues have been identified so far from plant sources, but 20-hydroxyecdysone is the most frequently encountered and is often the major analogue present. Here we consider the occurrence of phytoecdysteroids in food plants and the human diet and how this might change in the future against the backdrop of what we currently know about biosynthesis of these compounds in plants and their bioavailability, metabolism, and biological activities in mammals. Finally, we discuss the medical and pharmaceutical potential of these molecules, particularly in the area of muscle wasting diseases and diabetes, and indicate which areas of fundamental research require focused study.

Keyword

20-Hydroxyecdysone Anabolic Antidiabetic Bioavailability Biosynthesis Dietary intake Metabolism Quinoa Spinach Steroid Structure-activity relationship 

Abbreviations

20E

20-hydroxyecdysone

2d20E

2-deoxy-20-hydroxyecdysone

4E-BP1

4E-binding protein 1

ADMET

adsorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, toxicology

AjuC

ajugasterone C

CNS

central nervous system

Cyast

cyasterone

DHT

dihydrotestosterone

DMD

Duchenne muscular dystrophy

E

ecdysone

E2

estradiol

HPLC

high-performance liquid chromatography

i.p.

intraperitoneal

IGF-1

insulin-like growth factor 1

Ino

inokosterone

IntA

integristerone A

LC

liquid chromatography

LD50

dose bringing about 50% mortality

MakA

makisterone A

MS

mass spectrometry

mTORC1

mammalian (or mechanistic) target of rapamycin complex 1

NMR

nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

PI3K

phosphoinositide kinase-3

PoA

ponasterone A

PolB

polypodine B

Pter

pterosterone

RIA

radioimmunoassay

Rub

rubrosterone

SAR

structure-activity relationship

TLC

thin-layer chromatography

Turk

turkesterone

UV

ultraviolet

Notes

Acknowledgments

We are grateful to Biophytis for supporting the preparation of this chapter; we thank Christine Balducci and Louis Guibout for carrying out the HPLC-MS/MS of food plant samples and Stanislas Veillet and Pierre Dilda for their comments on the manuscript.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Laurence Dinan
    • 1
  • Nilufar Z. Mamadalieva
    • 2
  • René Lafont
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Biophytis, Campus Pierre & Marie CurieSorbonne UniversitéParisFrance
  2. 2.Academy of Sciences of the Republic of UzbekistanS. Yu. Yusonov Institute for the Chemistry of Plant SubstancesTashkentUzbekistan
  3. 3.IBPS-BIOSIPE, Campus Pierre & Marie CurieSorbonne UniversitéParisFrance

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