Advertisement

Distributed Brillouin Sensing: Correlation-Domain Techniques

  • Weiwen ZouEmail author
  • Xin Long
  • Jianping Chen
Reference work entry

Abstract

The Brillouin based distributed sensors have great potentials in many fields such as smart materials and structers. The correlation domain technique developed in the last two decades is based on the measurement for the correlated-peaks along the optical fiber. It have attracted much attention as its unparalleled advantages in ultra high resolution and the ability to achieve dynamic measurement, which are difficult for the traditional time domain techniques. Both spontaneous Brillouin scattering and stimulated Brillouin scattering can be utilized in correlation domain techniques. Efforts have been paid to improve the performances including the effective sensing points enlargement and noise suppression. Moreover, the correlation domain techniques can be well combined with other techniques such as time domain techniques or Brillouin dynamic grating techniques.

References

  1. G.P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 5th edn. (Academic, New York, 2012)Google Scholar
  2. X. Bao, D.J. Webb, D.A. Jackson, 32-km distributed temperature sensor based on Brillouin loss in an optical fiber. Opt. Lett. 18, 1561–1563 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. A. Denisov, M.A. Soto, L. Thévenaz, Going beyond 1000000 resolved points in a Brillouin distributed fiber sensor: theoretical analysis and experimental demonstration. Light: Sci. Appl. 5, e16074 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. D. Elooz, Y. Antman, N. Levanon, A. Zadok, High-resolution long-reach distributed Brillouin sensing based on combined time-domain and correlation-domain analysis. Opt. Express 22, 6453–6463 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. A.L. Gaeta, R.W. Boyd, Stochastic dynamics of stimulated Brillouin scattering in an optical fiber. Phys. Rev. A 44, 3205–3209 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. D. Garcus, T. Gogolla, K. Krebber, F. Schliep, Brillouin optical-fiber frequency-domain analysis for distributed temperature and strain measurements. J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 654–662 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. D. Garus, K. Krebber, F. Schliep, T. Gogolla, Distributed sensing technique based on Brillouin optical-fiber frequency-domain analysis. Opt. Lett. 21, 1402–1404 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. T. Horiguchi, M. Tateda, BOTDA-nondestructive measurement of single-mode optical fiber attenuation characteristics using Brillouin interaction: Theory. J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1170–1176 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. T. Horiguchi, T. Kurashima, M. Tateda, Tensile strain dependence of Brillouin frequency shift in silica optical fibers. IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 107–108 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. T. Horiguchi, T. Kurashima, M. Tateda, A technique to measure distributed strain in optical fibers. IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 352–354 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. T. Horiguchi, T. Kurashima, Y. Koyamada, Measurement of temperature and strain distribution by Brillouin frequency shift in silica optical fibers, in Fibers’ 92, (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 1993), pp. 2–13Google Scholar
  12. K. Hotate, T. Hasegawa, Measurement of Brillouin gain Spectrum distribution along an optical fiber using a correlation-based technique--proposal, experiment and simulation. IEICE Trans. Electron. 83, 405–412 (2000)Google Scholar
  13. K. Hotate, S.S. Ong, Distributed fiber Brillouin strain sensing by correlation-based continuous-wave technique∼ cm-order spatial resolution and dynamic strain measurement. Proc. SPIE 4920, 299–310 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. K. Hotate, M. Tanaka, Distributed fiber Brillouin strain sensing with 1-cm spatial resolution by correlation-based continuous-wave technique. IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 179–181 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. E.P. Ippen, R.H. Stolen, Stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers. Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 539–541 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. R.B. Jenkins, R.M. Sova, R.I. Joseph, Steady-state noise analysis of spontaneous and stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers. J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 763–770 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. J.H. Jeong, K. Lee, J.M. Jeong, S.B. Lee, Measurement range expansion in Brillouin optical correlation-domain analysis system, in Proceedings of the International Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, vol. 1 (2011)Google Scholar
  18. J.H. Jeong, K. Lee, J.-M. Jeong, S.B. Lee, Measurement range enlargement in Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis using multiple correlation peaks. J. Opt. Soc. Korea 16, 210 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. M. Kannou, S. Adachi, K. Hotate, Temporal gating scheme for enlargement of measurement range of Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis for optical fiber distributed strain measurement, in Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, vol. 454 (2003)Google Scholar
  20. T. Kurashima, T. Horiguchi, M. Tateda, Thermal effects of Brillouin gain spectra in single-mode fibers. IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 718–720 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. T. Kurashima, T. Horiguchi, H. Izumita, S.-i. Furukawa, Y. Koyamada, Brillouin optical-fiber time domain reflectometry. IEICE Trans. Commun. 76, 382–390 (1993)Google Scholar
  22. Y. London, Y. Antman, E. Preter, N. Levanon, A. Zadok, Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis addressing 440 000 resolution points. J. Lightwave Technol. 34, 4421–4429 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Y. Mizuno, W. Zou, Z. He, K. Hotate, Proposal of Brillouin optical correlation-domain reflectometry (BOCDR). Opt. Express 16, 12148–12153 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Y. Mizuno, Z. He, K. Hotate, One-end-access high-speed distributed strain measurement with 13-mm spatial resolution based on Brillouin optical correlation-domain reflectometry. IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 474–476 (2009a)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Y. Mizuno, Z. He, K. Hotate, Measurement range enlargement in Brillouin optical correlation-domain reflectometry based on temporal gating scheme. Opt. Express 17, 9040–9046 (2009b)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Y. Mizuno, Z. He, K. Hotate, Stable entire-length measurement of fiber strain distribution by Brillouin optical correlation-domain reflectometry with polarization scrambling and noise-floor compensation. Appl. Phys. Express 2, 062403 (2009c)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Y. Mizuno, W.W. Zou, Z.Y. He, K. Hotate, Operation of Brillouin optical correlation domain reflectometry: Theoretical analysis and experimental validation. J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 3300–3306 (2010a)Google Scholar
  28. Y. Mizuno, Z. He, K. Hotate, Measurement range enlargement in Brillouin optical correlation-domain reflectometry based on double-modulation scheme. Opt. Express 18, 5926–5933 (2010b)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Y. Mizuno, N. Hayashi, H. Fukuda, K.Y. Song, K. Nakamura, Ultrahigh-speed distributed Brillouin reflectometry. Light Sci. Appl. 5(12), e16184 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. M. Niklès, L. Thévenaz, P.A. Robert, Simple distributed fiber sensor based on Brillouin gain spectrum analysis. Opt. Lett. 21, 758–760 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. M. Nikles, L. Thevenaz, P.A. Robert, Brillouin gain spectrum characterization in singlemode optical fibers. J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1842–1851 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. A.S. Pine, Brillouin scattering study of acoustic attenuation in fused quartz. Phys. Rev. 185, 1187–1193 (1969)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. R.M. Shelby, M.D. Levenson, P.W. Bayer, Resolved forward Brillouin scattering in optical fibers. Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 939 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. K. Shimizu, T. Horiguchi, Y. Koyamada, T. Kurashima, Coherent self-heterodyne Brillouin OTDR for measurement of Brillouin frequency shift distribution in optical fibers. J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 730–736 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. K.Y. Song, K. Hotate, Enlargement of measurement range in a Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis system using double lock-in amplifiers and a single-sideband modulator, in Proceedings of the International Conference on OSA/OFC (2006)Google Scholar
  36. K.-Y. Song, K. Hotate, Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis in linear configuration. IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 2150–2152 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. K.Y. Song, Z.Y. He, K. Hotate, Distributed strain measurement with millimeter-order spatial resolution based on Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis. Opt. Lett. 31, 2526–2528 (2006a)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. K.Y. Song, Z. He, K. Hotate, Optimization of Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis system based on intensity modulation scheme. Opt. Express 14, 4256–4263 (2006b)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. K.Y. Song, W. Zou, Z. He, K. Hotate, All-optical dynamic grating generation based on Brillouin scattering in polarization-maintaining fiber. Opt. Lett. 33(9), 926–928 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. R.K. Yamashita, W. Zou, Z. He, K. Hotate, Measurement range elongation based on temporal gating in Brillouin optical correlation domain distributed simultaneous sensing of strain and temperature. IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1006–1008 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. T. Yamauchi, K. Hotate, Performance evaluation of Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis for fiber optic distributed strain sensing by numerical simulation. Optics East. International Society for Optics and Photonics. 5589, 164–174 (2004)Google Scholar
  42. A. Yeniay, J.-M. Delavaux, J. Toulouse, Spontaneous and stimulated Brillouin scattering gain spectra in optical fibers. J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1425 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. W. Zou, Z. He, K. Hotate, Complete discrimination of strain and temperature using Brillouin frequency shift and birefringence in a polarization-maintaining fiber. Opt. Express 17(3), 1248–1255 (2009a)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. W. Zou, Z. He, K.Y. Song, K. Hotate, Correlation-based distributed measurement of a dynamic grating spectrum generated in stimulated Brillouin scattering in a polarization-maintaining optical fiber. Opt. Lett. 34(7), 1126–1128 (2009b)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. W. Zou, Z. He, K. Hotate, Single-end-access correlation-domain distributed fiber optic sensor based on stimulated Brillouin scattering. J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 2736–2742 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. W. Zou, Z. He, K. Hotate, Enlargement of measurement range by double frequency modulations in one-laser Brillouin correlation domain distributed discrimination system, in Proceedings of the International Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, vol. 1 (2011)Google Scholar
  47. W. Zou, C. Jin, J. Chen, Distributed strain sensing based on combination of Brillouin gain and loss effects in Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis. Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082503 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. W. Zou, X. Long, J. Chen, Brillouin scattering in optical fibers and its application to distributed sensors, in Advances in Optical Fiber Technology: Fundamental Optical Phenomena and Applications, (InTech, Croatia, 2015)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Advanced Optical Communication Systems and Networks, Department of Electronic EngineeringShanghai Jiao Tong UniversityShanghaiChina

Section editors and affiliations

  • Yosuke Mizuno
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Innovative ResearchTokyo Institute of TechnologyTokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations