Advertisement

Micro-/Nano-optical Fiber Devices

Reference work entry

Abstract

Recently, there has been an increasing interest in the study of micro-/nano-optical fibers (MNOFs) with submicron transverse dimensions. The MNOFs are usually fabricated from standard optical fibers and have interesting optical properties like large evanescent fields, strong confinement of electromagnetic fields, as well as low interconnection loss when coupled to other optical fiber components and systems. In addition to the excellent optical properties, they are also extremely flexible and lightweight and offer a high degree of configurability. Several applications have been developed to take advantage of MNOF’s unique optical and mechanical properties, including the miniaturization of conventional fiber devices (gratings, couplers, interferometers, etc.) and special stereo devices based on the wrap-on-a-rod technique. With the incorporation of new materials like graphene, MNOFs are ideally placed for the fabrication of several linear and nonlinear optical devices with immense potential for applications in optical telecommunications, lasers, and sensors. In this chapter, we present an overview of the latest results from the theoretical and experimental studies of MNOFs. The waveguide model, fabrication techniques, device fabrication, and applications are discussed.

Keywords

Microfiber Nanofiber Sensor Integration Taper 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The author acknowledges financial support from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (61535005 and 61475069). The author gratefully acknowledges Zhen-xin Wu, Meng-tao Mao, Wei Luo, Jin-hui Chen, Jin-hong Li, and Shao-cheng Yan for their help in preparing the manuscripts.

References

  1. Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z.X. Shen, K.P. Loh, D.Y. Tang, Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C.H.Y.X. Lim, Y. Wang, D.Y. Tang, K.P. Loh, Nat. Photonics 5(7), 411–415 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. F. Bilodeau, K.O. Hill, D.C. Johnson, S. Faucher, Opt. Lett. 12(8), 634–636 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. F. Bilodeau, K.O. Hill, S. Faucher, D.C. Johnson, J. Lightwave Technol. 6(10), 1476–1482 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. F. Bilodeau, Y. Hibino, M. Abe, B. Malo, J. Albert, M. Kawachi, D. Johnson, K. Hill, Opt. Lett. 18(12), 953–955 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. T.A. Birks, Y.W. Li, J. Lightwave Technol. 10(4), 432–438 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. R.W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic, San Diego, 1992)Google Scholar
  8. C.V. Boys, Philos. Mag. Ser.. 5 23(145), 489–499 (1887)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. G. Brambilla, J Opt.-Uk 12(4), 043001 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. G. Brambilla, V. Finazzi, D.J. Richardson, Opt. Express 12(10), 2258–2263 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. G. Brambilla, E. Koizumi, X. Feng, D.J. Richardson, Electron. Lett. 41(7), 400–402 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. G. Brambilla, F. Xu, X. Feng, Electron. Lett. 42(9), 517–519 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. G. Brambilla, F. Xu, P. Horak, Y. Jung, F. Koizumi, N.P. Sessions, E. Koukharenko, X. Feng, G.S. Murugan, J.S. Wilkinson, et al., Adv. Opt. Photon. 1(1), 107–161 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. J. Bures, R. Ghosh, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16(8), 1992–1996 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. C. Caspar, E.J. Bachus, Electron. Lett. 25(22), 1506–1508 (1989a)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. C. Caspar, E.J. Bachus, Electronnics Lett. 25(11), 1506–1508 (1989b)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Y. Chen, F. Xu, Y. Lu, Opt. Express 19(23), 22923–22928 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. N.K. Chen, G.L. Cheng, Z.Y. Chen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(13), 1211–1213 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Y. Chen, S. Yan, X. Zheng, F. Xu, Y. Lu, Opt. Express 22(3), 2443–2450 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. J.-H. Chen, B.-C. Zheng, G.-H. Shao, S.-J. Ge, F. Xu, Y.-Q. Lu, Light-Sci. Appl. 4, e360 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. J.-h. Chen, Z.-h. Liang, L.-r. Yuan, C. Li, M.-r. Chen, Y.-d. Xia, X.-j. Zhang, F. Xu, Y.-q. Lu, Nanoscale 9(10), 3424–3428 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. A.M. Clohessy, N. Healy, D.F. Murphy, C.D. Hussey, Electron. Lett. 41(17), 954–955 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. W. Ding, S. Andrews, T. Birks, S. Maier, Opt. Lett. 31(17), 2556–2558 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. W. Ding, S. Andrews, S. Maier, Opt. Lett. 32(17), 2499–2501 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. J. Du, Q. Wang, G. Jiang, C. Xu, C. Zhao, Y. Xiang, Y. Chen, S. Wen, H. Zhang, Sci. Rep. 4(4), 6346 (2014)Google Scholar
  26. X. Fei, B. Gilberto, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(8S1), 6675 (2008)Google Scholar
  27. J. Feng, M. Ding, J.-l. Kou, F. Xu, Y.-q. Lu, IEEE Photon. J. 3(5), 810–814 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. X. Gan, C. Zhao, Y. Wang, D. Mao, L. Fang, L. Han, J. Zhao. Opt. 2(5), 468 (2015)Google Scholar
  29. K.O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. Johnson, J. Albert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(10), 1035–1037 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, R. Bernini, M. Giordano, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(4), 1149–1151 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. M.F. Jaddoa, A.A. Jasim, M.Z.A. Razak, S.W. Harun, H. Ahmad, Sens. Actuator A-Phys. 237, 56–61 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. A.A. Jasim, S.W. Harun, H. Arof, H. Ahmad, IEEE Sensors J. 13(2), 626–628 (2013a)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. A.A. Jasim, S.W. Harun, M.Z. Muhammad, H. Arof, H. Ahmad, Sens. Actuator A-Phys. 192, 9–12 (2013b)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. W.B. Ji, H.H. Liu, S.C. Tjin, K.K. Chow, A. Lim, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(20), 1872–1874 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Y. Jung, G. Brambilla, D.J. Richardson, Opt. Express 17(7), 5273–5278 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Y.M. Jung, G. Brambilla, D.J. Richardson, Opt. Lett. 35(12), 2034–2036 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. N.S. Kapany, Nature 184(4690), 881–883 (1959)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. D. Karnakis, Ultrafast Laser Nanomachining: Doing More with Less, Commercial MicroManufacturing. (Oxford, 2008). https://www.researchgate.net/publication/266217841_Ultrafast_Laser_Nanomachining_Doing_More_With_Less
  39. J.-l. Kou, S.-j. Qiu, F. Xu, Y.-q. Lu, Opt. Express 19(19), 18452–18457 (2011a)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. J.-l. Kou, F. Xu, Y.-q. Lu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(15), 1034–1036 (2011b)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. J.-L. Kou, M. Ding, J. Feng, Y.-Q. Lu, F. Xu, G. Brambilla, Sensors 12(7), 8861–8876 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. J.-l. Kou, J.-h. Chen, Y. Chen, F. Xu, Y.-q. Lu, Optica 1(5), 307–310 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. E.J. Lee, S.Y. Choi, H. Jeong, N.H. Park, W. Yim, M.H. Kim, J.-K. Park, S. Son, S. Bae, S.J. Kim, Nat. Commun. 6, 6068 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. S.G. Leon-Saval, T.A. Birks, W.J. Wadsworth, P.S.J. Russell, M.W. Mason, Opt. Express 12(13), 2864–2869 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. W. Li, B. Chen, C. Meng, W. Fang, Y. Xiao, X. Li, Z. Hu, Y. Xu, L. Tong, H. Wang, Nano Lett. 14(2), 955–959 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. W. Liang, Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R.K. Lee, A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 151122 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. S.D. Lim, K.J. Park, B.Y. Kim, K. Lee, S.B. Lee, IEEE. 2010 Conference on Optical Fiber Communication Ofc Collocated National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference Ofc-Nfoec (2010)Google Scholar
  48. S.D. Lim, K.J. Park, B.Y. Kim, K. Lee, S.B. Lee, An optical microfiber sagnac interferometer with adjustable transmission, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), Paper JWA7. Optical Fiber Communication Conference 2010, San Diego, 21–25 March 2010, pp. 1–3Google Scholar
  49. Y. Liu, C. Meng, A.P. Zhang, Y. Xiao, H. Yu, L. Tong, Opt. Lett. 36(16), 3115–3117 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Z.B. Liu, M. Feng, W.S. Jiang, W. Xin, P. Wang, Q.W. Sheng, Y.G. Liu, D.N. Wang, W.Y. Zhou, J.G. Tian, Laser Phys. Lett. 10(6), 065901 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. R. Lorenzi, Y. Jung, G. Brambilla, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(17), 173504 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. J.D. Love, W.M. Henry, W.J. Stewart, R.J. Black, S. Lacroix, F. Gonthier, Iee Proc.-J. Optoelectron. 138(5), 343–354 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. W. Luo, J.-l. Kou, Y. Chen, F. Xu, Y.-Q. Lu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(13), 133502 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. H. Luo, Q. Sun, Z. Xu, D. Liu, L. Zhang, Opt. Lett. 39(13), 4049–4052 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. J. Ma, W. Jin, H.L. Ho, J.Y. Dai, Opt. Lett. 37(13), 2493–2495 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. J. Ma, H. Xuan, H.L. Ho, W. Jin, Photon. Technol. Lett. IEEE 25(10), 932–935 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. K. Nayak, K. Hakuta, Opt. Express 21(2), 2480–2490 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. K. Okamoto, Fundamentals of Optical Waveguides (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2006)Google Scholar
  59. Y. Ran, Y.-N. Tan, L.-P. Sun, S. Gao, J. Li, L. Jin, B.-O. Guan, Opt. Express 19(19), 18577–18583 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Y. Ran, L. Jin, Y.-N. Tan, L.-P. Sun, J. Li, B.-O. Guan, IEEE Photon. J. 4(1), 181–186 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. L. Rihakova, H. Chmelickova, Adv. Mater. Sci. Eng. 2015, 6 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. V. S Afshar, T.M. Monro, Opt. Express 17(4), 2298–2318 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. M. Sadgrove, R. Yalla, K.P. Nayak, K. Hakuta, Opt. Lett. 38(14), 2542–2545 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. G. Salcedadelgado, D. Monzonhernandez, A. Martinezrios, G.A. Cardenassevilla, J. Villatoro, Opt. Lett. 37(11), 1974–1976 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. L. Sang-Mae, S.S. Saini, J. Myung-Yung, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(19), 1431–1433 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. O. Schwelb, J. Lightwave Technol. 22(5), 1380–1394 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Y. Shao, J. Wang, H. Wu, J. Liu, I.A. Aksay, Y. Lin, Electroanalysis 22(10), 1027–1036 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. L.F. Stokes, M. Chodorow, H.J. Shaw, Opt. Lett. 7(6), 288–290 (1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. M. Sumetsky, Opt. Express 12(10), 2303–2316 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. M. Sumetsky, Demonstration of a Multi-turn Microfiber Coil Resonator. Optical Fiber Communication Conference (San Diego, 2007)Google Scholar
  71. M. Sumetsky, Y. Dulashko, A. Hale, Opt. Express 12(15), 3521–3531 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. M. Sumetsky, Y. Dulashko, J.M. Fini, A. Hale, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(16), 161108 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. M. Sumetsky, Y. Dulashko, J.M. Fini, A. Hale, D.J. DiGiovanni, J. Lightwave Technol. 24(1), 242–250 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. L. Sun, J. Li, Y. Tan, X. Shen, X. Xie, S. Gao, B. Guan, Opt. Express 20(9), 10180–10185 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. X. Sun, C. Qiu, J. Wu, H. Zhou, T. Pan, J. Mao, X. Yin, R. Liu, W. Gao, Z. Fang, Opt. Express 23(19), 25209–25216 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. L.M. Tong, R.R. Gattass, J.B. Ashcom, S.L. He, J.Y. Lou, M.Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, E. Mazur, Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. L.M. Tong, J.Y. Lou, E. Mazur, Opt. Express 12(6), 1025–1035 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. L. Tong, L. Hu, J. Zhang, J. Qiu, Q. Yang, J. Lou, Y. Shen, J. He, Z. Ye, Opt. Express 14(1), 82–87 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. L.M. Tong, F. Zi, X. Guo, J.Y. Lou, Opt. Commun. 285(23), 4641–4647 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. T. Wieduwilt, S. Bruckner, H. Bartelt, Meas. Sci. Technol. 22(7), 075201 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Y. Wu, B. Yao, A. Zhang, Y. Rao, Z. Wang, Y. Cheng, Y. Gong, W. Zhang, Y. Chen, K. Chiang, Opt. Lett. 39(5), 1235–1237 (2014a)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Y. Wu, B.C. Yao, Y. Cheng, Y.J. Rao, Y. Gong, W. Zhang, Z. Wang, Y. Chen, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(1), 49–54 (2014b)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. L. Xiao, T.A. Birks, Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1098–1100 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Y. Xiao, J. Zhang, X. Cai, S. Tan, J. Yu, H. Lu, Y. Luo, G. Liao, S. Li, J. Tang, et al., Opt. Express 22(25), 31555–31567 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. F. Xu, G. Brambilla, Opt. Lett. 32(15), 2164–2166 (2007a)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. F. Xu, G. Brambilla, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(19), 1481–1483 (2007b)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. F. Xu, G. Brambilla, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 093112 (2008a)Google Scholar
  88. F. Xu, G. Brambilla, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 101126 (2008b)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. F. Xu, P. Horak, G. Brambilla, Opt. Express 15(12), 7888–7893 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. F. Xu, G. Brambilla, Y. Lu, Opt. Express 17(23), 20866–20871 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. F. Xu, G. Brambilla, J. Feng, Y.-Q. Lu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(4), 218–220 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. F. Xu, Q. Wang, J.F. Zhou, W. Hu, Y.Q. Lu, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(4), 1102–1106 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. H.F. Xuan, J. Ju, W. Jin, Opt. Express 18(4), 3828–3839 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. S. Yan, Y. Chen, C.H. Li, F. Xu, Y. Lu, Opt. Express 23(7), 9407–9414 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. S.C. Yan, Z.Y. Liu, C. Li, S.J. Ge, F. Xu, Y.Q. Lu, Opt. Lett. 41(24), 5680–5683 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. E.J. Zhang, W.D. Sacher, J.K.S. Poon, Opt. Express 18(21), 22593–22598 (2010a)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Y. Zhang, B. Lin, S.C. Tjin, H. Zhang, G. Wang, P. Shum, X. Zhang, Opt. Express 18(25), 26345–26350 (2010b)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. H. Zhang, S. Virally, Q. Bao, L.K. Ping, S. Massar, N. Godbout, P. Kockaert, Opt. Lett. 37(11), 1856–1858 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. J. Zhang, G. Liao, S. Jin, D. Cao, Q. Wei, H. Lu, J. Yu, X. Cai, S. Tan, Y. Xiao, Laser Phys. Lett. 11(3), 035901 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. C. Zhao, Y. Zou, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, S. Wen, D. Tang, Opt. Express 20(25), 27888–27895 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. B.-C. Zheng, S.-C. Yan, J.-H. Chen, G.-X. Cui, F. Xu, Y.-Q. Lu, Laser Photonics Rev. 9(5), 517–522 (2015a)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Y. Zheng, X. Dong, C.C. Chan, P.P. Shum, H. Su, Opt. Commun. 336, 5–8 (2015b)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and College of Engineering and Applied SciencesNanjing UniversityNanjingP. R. China

Section editors and affiliations

  • Tuan Guo
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Photonics TechnologyJinan UniversityGuangzhouChina

Personalised recommendations