Solid Core Single-Mode Polymer Fiber Gratings and Sensors

  • Kishore BhowmikEmail author
  • Gang Ding Peng
  • Eliathamby Ambikairajah
  • Ginu Rajan
Reference work entry


Research on single-mode polymer optical fibers Bragg gratings based on polymer optical fiber and their applications has considerably progressed in the recent years. This chapter provides an overview on recent research developments on solid core single-mode polymer fiber Bragg grating sensors, devices, and their applications.


Polymer optical fiber (POF) Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) Polymer optical fiber Bragg grating (POFBG) POFBG applications 


  1. A. Abang, D.J. Webb, Influence of mounting on the hysteresis of polymer fiber Bragg grating strain sensors. Opt. Lett. 38, 1376–1378 (2013). 2013/05/01CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. D.Z. Anderson, V. Mizrahi, T. Erdogan, A.E. White, Production of in-fibre gratings using a diffractive optical element. Electron. Lett. 29, 566–568 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. S. Aramaki, G. Assanto, G.I. Stegeman, M. Marciniak, Realization of integrated Bragg reflectors in DANS-polymer waveguides. J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1189–1195 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. G.A. Ball, W.W. Morey, Compression-tuned single-frequency Bragg grating fiber laser. Opt. Lett. 19, 1979–1981 (1994). 1994/12/01CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. T.A. Berkoff, A.D. Kersey, Experimental demonstration of a fiber Bragg grating accelerometer. IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1677–1679 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. K. Bhowmik, G. Rajan, E. Ambikairajah, G.-D. Peng, Hydrostatic pressure sensitivity of standard polymer fibre Bragg gratings and etched polymer fibre Bragg gratings, in OFS-23 Conference (2014), pp. 91573G–91573G-4Google Scholar
  7. K. Bhowmik, G. Peng, E. Ambikairajah, V. Lovric, W.R. Walsh, B.G. Prusty, et al., Intrinsic high-sensitivity sensors based on etched single-mode polymer optical fibers. Photon. Technol. Lett. IEEE 27, 604–607 (2015a)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. K. Bhowmik, G. Rajan, G. Peng, E. Ambikairajah, Y. Luo, B. Walsh, et al., Experimental study and analysis of hydrostatic pressure sensitivity of polymer fibre Bragg gratings. J. Lightwave Technol. 33, 2456 (2015b). Accepted for publicationCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. K. Bhowmik, G.D. Peng, Y. Luo, E. Ambikairajah, V. Lovric, W.R. Walsh, et al., Etching process related changes and effects on solid-core single-mode polymer optical fiber grating. IEEE Photon. J. 8, 1–9 (2016a)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. K. Bhowmik, G.D. Peng, Y. Luo, E. Ambikairajah, V. Lovric, W.R. Walsh, et al., High intrinsic sensitivity etched polymer fiber Bragg grating pair for simultaneous strain and temperature measurements. IEEE Sensors J. 16, 2453–2459 (2016b)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. R. Bogue, Fibre optic sensors: a review of today’s applications. Sens. Rev. 31, 304–309 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. D. Bosc, C. Toinen, Full polymer single-mode optical fiber. IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 749–750 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. M.J. Bowden, E.A. Chandross, I.P. Kaminow, Mechanism of the photoinduced refractive index increase in polymethyl methacrylate. Appl. Opt. 13, 112–117 (1974). 1974/01/01CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. B. Culshaw, A. Kersey, Fiber-optic sensing: a historical perspective. J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 1064–1078 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. N.G. Harbach, Fiber Bragg Gratings in Polymer Optical Fibers (EPFL, Lausanne, 2008)Google Scholar
  16. D.J. Hill, G.A. Cranch, Gain in hydrostatic pressure sensitivity of coated fibre Bragg grating. Electron. Lett. 35, 1268–1269 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. K.O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D.C. Johnson, J. Albert, Bragg gratings fabricated in monomode photosensitive optical fiber by UV exposure through a phase mask. Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035–1037 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. X. Hu, C.-F.J. Pun, H.-Y. Tam, P. Mégret, C. Caucheteur, Highly reflective Bragg gratings in slightly etched step-index polymer optical fiber. Opt. Express 22, 18807–18817 (2014). 2014/07/28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. X.F. Huang, D.R. Sheng, K.F. Cen, H. Zhou, Low-cost relative humidity sensor based on thermoplastic polyimide-coated fiber Bragg grating. Sensors Actuators B Chem. 127, 518–524 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. A. Iocco, H.G. Limberger, R.P. Salathe, Bragg grating fast tunable filter. Electron. Lett. 33, 2147–2148 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. A. Iocco, H.G. Limberger, R.P. Salathe, L.A. Everall, K.E. Chisholm, J.A.R. Williams, et al., Bragg grating fast tunable filter for wavelength division multiplexing. J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1217–1221 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. I.P. Johnson, D.J. Webb, K. Kalli, Hydrostatic pressure sensing using a polymer optical fibre Bragg gratings (2012), pp. 835106–835106-7Google Scholar
  23. I.P. Kaminow, H.P. Weber, E.A. Chandross, Poly(methyl methacrylate) dye laser with internal diffraction grating resonator. Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 497–499 (1971)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. A.D. Kersey, M.A. Davis, H.J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K.P. Koo, C.G. Askins, et al., Fiber grating sensors. J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442–1463 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. M. Kopietz, M.D. Lechner, D.G. Steinmeier, J. Marotz, H. Franke, E. Krätzig, Light-induced refractive index changes in polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) blocks. Polym. Photochem. 5, 109–119 (1984). 1984/01/01CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. K.S.C. Kuang, W.J. Cantwell, The use of plastic optical fibre sensors for monitoring the dynamic response of fibre composite beams. Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 736 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. C.R. Kurkjian, J.T. Krause, M.J. Matthewson, Strength and fatigue of silica optical fibers. J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1360–1370 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. M.G. Kuzyk, U.C. Paek, C.W. Dirk, Guest-host polymer fibers for nonlinear optics. Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 902–904 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. K.S. Lim, H.Z. Yang, W.Y. Chong, Y.K. Cheong, C.H. Lim, N.M. Ali, et al., Axial contraction in etched optical fiber due to internal stress reduction. Opt. Express 21, 2551–2562 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. H.Y. Liu, G.D. Peng, P.L. Chu, Thermal tuning of polymer optical fiber Bragg gratings. Photon Technol. Lett. IEEE 13, 824–826 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. H.Y. Liu, G.D. Peng, P.L. Chu, Polymer fiber Bragg gratings with 28-dB transmission rejection. IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 935–937 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. H.Y. Liu, H.B. Liu, G.D. Peng, P.L. Chu, Observation of type I and type II gratings behavior in polymer optical fiber. Opt. Commun. 220, 337–343 (2003a). 2003/05/15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. H.B. Liu, H.Y. Liu, G.D. Peng, P.L. Chu, Strain and temperature sensor using a combination of polymer and silica fibre Bragg gratings. Opt. Commun. 219, 139–142 (2003b)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. H.B. Liu, H.Y. Liu, G.D. Peng, P.L. Chu, Novel growth behaviors of fiber Bragg gratings in polymer optical fiber under UV irradiation with low power. IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 159–161 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. H.Y. Liu, H.B. Liu, G.D. Peng, Tensile strain characterization of polymer optical fibre Bragg gratings. Opt. Commun. 251, 37–43 (2005). 2005/07/01CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. J.M. Lopez-Higuera, L.R. Cobo, A.Q. Incera, A. Cobo, Fiber optic sensors in structural health monitoring. J. Lightwave Technol. 29, 587–608 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Y. Luo, B. Yan, M. Li, X. Zhang, W. Wu, Q. Zhang, et al., Analysis of multimode POF gratings in stress and strain sensing applications. Opt. Fiber Technol. 17, 201–209 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. B. Malo, K.O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, D.C. Johnson, J. Albert, Point-by-point fabrication of micro-Bragg gratings in photosensitive fibre using single excimer pulse refractive index modification techniques. Electron. Lett. 29, 1668–1669 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. J. Marotz, Holographic storage in sensitized polymethyl methacrylate blocks. Appl. Phys. B 37, 181–187 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. J. Mathew, Y. Semenova, G. Farrell, Relative humidity sensor based on an agarose-infiltrated photonic crystal fiber interferometer. IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 1553–1559 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. G. Meltz, W.W. Morey, W.H. Glenn, Formation of Bragg gratings in optical fibers by a transverse holographic method. Opt. Lett. 14, 823–825 (1989). 1989/08/01CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. D.F. Merchant, P.J. Scully, N.F. Schmitt, Chemical tapering of polymer optical fibre. Sensors Actuators A Phys. 76, 365–371 (1999). 1999/08/30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. J. Mora, A. Diez, J.L. Cruz, M.V. Andres, A magnetostrictive sensor interrogated by fiber gratings for DC-current and temperature discrimination. IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1680–1682 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. J.M. Moran, I.P. Kaminow, Properties of holographic gratings photoinduced in polymethyl methacrylate. Appl. Opt. 12, 1964–1970 (1973). 1973/08/01CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. P.M. Nellen, P. Mauron, A. Frank, U. Sennhauser, K. Bohnert, P. Pequignot, et al., Reliability of fiber Bragg grating based sensors for downhole applications. Sensors Actuators A Phys. 103, 364–376 (2003). 2003/02/15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Hatanaka, Preparation of light-focusing plastic fiber by heat-drawing process. Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 735–737 (1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. G.-D. Peng, P.L. Chu, X. Lou, R.A. Chaplin, Fabrication and characterization of polymer optical fibers. J. Electron. Electr. Eng. 15, 289–296 (1995)Google Scholar
  48. G.D. Peng, Z. Xiong, P.L. Chu, Photosensitivity and gratings in dye-doped polymer optical fibers. Opt. Fiber Technol. 5, 242–251 (1999). 1999/04/01CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. G. Rajan, B. Liu, Y. Luo, E. Ambikairajah, G.D. Peng, High sensitivity force and pressure measurements using etched singlemode polymer fiber Bragg gratings. IEEE Sensors J. 13, 1794–1800 (2013a)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. G. Rajan, Y.M. Noor, B. Liu, E. Ambikairaja, D.J. Webb, G.-D. Peng, A fast response intrinsic humidity sensor based on an etched singlemode polymer fiber Bragg grating. Sensors Actuators A Phys. 203, 107–111 (2013b)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. G. Rajan, M.Y.M. Noor, E. Ambikairajah, G.D. Peng, Inscription of multiple Bragg gratings in a single-mode polymer optical fiber using a single phase mask and its analysis. IEEE Sensors J. 14, 2384–2388 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. B.E. Read, J.C. Duncan, Measurement of dynamic properties of polymeric glasses for different modes of deformation. Polym. Test. 2, 135–150 (1981). 1981/04/01CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. D. Song, J. Zou, Z. Wei, S. Yang, H.-L. Cui, High-sensitivity fiber Bragg grating pressure sensor using metal bellows. Opt. Eng. 48, 034403–034403-3 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Standard test method for tensile strength and young’s modulus of fibers, ed Active Standard ASTM C1557, 2003Google Scholar
  55. A. Stefani, S. Andresen, W. Yuan, O. Bang, Dynamic characterization of polymer optical fibers. IEEE Sensors J. 12, 3047–3053 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. W.J. Tomlinson, I.P. Kaminow, E.A. Chandross, R.L. Fork, W.T. Silfvast, Photoinduced refractive index increase in poly(methyl methacrylate) and its applications. Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 486–489 (1970)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. T. Wang, Y. Luo, G.-D. Peng, Q. Zhang, High-sensitivity stress sensor based on Bragg grating in BDK-doped photosensitive polymer optical fiber (2012), pp. 83510M–83510M-8Google Scholar
  58. G. Wild, S. Hinckley, Acousto-ultrasonic optical Fiber sensors: overview and state-of-the-art. IEEE Sensors J. 8, 1184–1193 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Z. Xiong, G.D. Peng, B. Wu, P.L. Chu, Highly tunable Bragg gratings in single-mode polymer optical fibers. IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 352–354 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. M.G. Xu, L. Reekie, Y.T. Chow, J.P. Dakin, Optical in-fibre grating high pressure sensor. Electron. Lett. 29, 398–399 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. M.G. Xu, J.L. Archambault, L. Reekie, J.P. Dakin, Discrimination between strain and temperature effects using dual-wavelength fibre grating sensors. Electron. Lett. 30, 1085–1087 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. T.L. Yeo, S. Tong, K.T.V. Grattan, D. Parry, R. Lade, B.D. Powell, Polymer-coated fiber Bragg grating for relative humidity sensing. Sensors J. IEEE 5, 1082–1089 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. T.L. Yeo, T. Sun, K.T.V. Grattan, Fibre-optic sensor technologies for humidity and moisture measurement. Sensors Actuators A Phys. 144, 280–295 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. L. Yunqi, C. Kin Seng, C. Pak Lim, Fiber-Bragg-grating force sensor based on a wavelength-switched self-seeded Fabry-Perot laser diode. IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 450–452 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. W. Zhang, D.J. Webb, G.D. Peng, Investigation into time response of polymer fiber Bragg grating based humidity sensors. J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 1090–1096 (2012a)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. W. Zhang, D. Webb, G. Peng, Polymer optical fiber Bragg grating acting as an intrinsic biochemical concentration sensor. Opt. Lett. 37, 1370–1372 (2012b)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kishore Bhowmik
    • 1
    Email author
  • Gang Ding Peng
    • 2
  • Eliathamby Ambikairajah
    • 3
  • Ginu Rajan
    • 4
    • 3
  1. 1.HFC Assurance, Operate and Maintain Network, NBNMelbourneAustralia
  2. 2.Photonics and Optical Communications, School of Electrical Engineering and TelecommunicationsUniversity of New South WalesSydneyAustralia
  3. 3.School of Electrical Engineering and TelecommunicationsUNSWSydneyAustralia
  4. 4.School of Electrical, Computer and Telecommunications EngineeringUniversity of WollongongWollongongAustralia

Section editors and affiliations

  • Ginu Rajan
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Electrical, Computer and Telecommunications EngineeringUniversity of WollongongWollongongAustralia

Personalised recommendations