Advertisement

Workplace Bullying, Disability and Chronic Ill Health

  • Duncan LewisEmail author
  • Ria DeakinEmail author
  • Frances-Louise McGregorEmail author
Living reference work entry
Part of the Handbooks of Workplace Bullying, Emotional Abuse and Harassment book series (HWBEAH, volume 3)

Abstract

This chapter considers how and why people with disabilities, impairments and chronic ill health report being subjected to bullying at work. Against a global environment that is reporting increases in working age, elongated access to workplace pensions as well as a growth in insecure work, workplaces of the future are increasingly likely to encompass increasing numbers of workers who are more likely to have some form of impairment or chronic ill health. Aside from gender and race, workplace bullying researchers have generally been slow to embrace diverse workplace populations with very little data on the experiences of people classified as holding impairments or chronic ill health. These populaces require careful research designs sensitive to their situations and mindful of how bullying at work can manifest in their lives. This chapter sets out some of the challenges facing researchers operating in a political–social landscape that currently locates the disabled and chronically sick as a cost to be managed. In maintaining the tradition of trying to make workplaces fairer and more dignified in their treatment of workers, the chapter sets out some of the challenges of seeing disabled people as ordinary human diversities rather than pathologies.

References

  1. Acas. (2016). Disability discrimination: Key points for the workplace. London: Acas. Accessed 27 Aug 2017.Google Scholar
  2. Adams, L., & Oldfield, K. (2012). Opening up: The views of disabled people and people with long-term health conditions, Research report 77. Manchester: Equality and Human Rights Commission.Google Scholar
  3. AHRC. (n.d.). 2015–2016 Complaint statistics. https://www.humanrights.gov.au/sites/default/files/AHRC%202015%20-%202016%20Complaint%20Statistics.pdf. Accessed 9 Oct 2017.
  4. Bacon, N., & Hoque, K. (2015). The influence of trade union Disability Champions on employer disability policy and practice. Human Resource Management Journal, 25(2), 233–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baldridge, D. C., & Veiga, J. F. (2001). Toward a greater understanding of the willingness to request an accommodation: Can requesters’ beliefs disable the Americans with disabilities act? The Academy of Management Review, 26(1), 85–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barnartt, S. N. (2008). Social movement diffusion? The case of disability protests in the US and Canada. Disability Studies Quarterly, 28(1).  https://doi.org/10.18061/dsq.v28i1.70.
  7. Barnes, C. (1992). Disabling imagery and the media: An exploration of the principles for media representations of disabled people. Halifax: British Council of Organizations of Disabled People.Google Scholar
  8. Barnes, C., & Mercer, G. (2005). Disability, work and welfare: Challenging the social exclusion of disabled people. Work, Employment and Sociiety, 19(3), 527–545.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Barnes, C., & Mercer, G. (1997). Breaking the mould? An introduction to doing disability research. In C. Barnes & G. Mercer (Eds.), Doing disability research (pp. 1–14). Leeds: The Disability Press.Google Scholar
  10. Barnes, C., & Oliver, M. (1995). Disability rights: Rhetoric and reality in the UK. Disability and Society, 10(1), 111–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bennett, T. (2010). Exploring the potential of the union equality representative. Employee Relations, 32(5), 509–525.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Blanck, P., & Flynn, E. (Eds.). (2017). Routledge handbook of disability law and human rights. Oxon/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  13. Bowling, N. A., & Beehr, T. A. (2006). Workplace harassment from the victim’s perspective: A theoretical model and meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91, 998–1012.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Brisenden, S. (1986). Independent living and the medical model of disability. Disability, Handicap and Society, 1(2), 173–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Burns, K. K., & Gordon, G. L. (2010). Analyzing the impact of disability legislation in Canada and the United States. Journal of Disability Policy Studies, 10(4), 205–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Colella, A. (2001). Co-worker distributive fairness judgments of the workplace accommodation of employees with disabilities. Academy of Management Review, 16(1), 100–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Coleman, N., Sykes, W., & Groom, C. (2013). Barriers to employment and unfair treatment at work: A quantitative analysis of disabled people’s experiences. Manchester: Equality and Human Rights Commission.Google Scholar
  18. Colling, T. (2006). What space for unions on the floor of rights? Trade unions and the enforcement of statutory individual employment rights. Industrial Law Journal, 35(2), 140–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Communities and Local Government. (2010). Citizenship Survey: 2008–09 (April 2008–March 2009), England. Cohesion Research Statistical Release 8. http://www.communities.gov.uk/documents/statistics/pdf/1284311.pdf. Accessed 28 Aug 2017.
  20. Corcoran, H., & Smith, K. (2016). Hate crime, England and Wales, 2015/16. London: Home Office.Google Scholar
  21. Dalgin, R. S., & Bellini, J. (2008). Invisible disclosure in an employment interview: Impact on employers’ hiring decisions and views on employability. Rehabilitation Counselling Bulletin, 52(1), 6–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dawn, R. (2012). Challenges in the employment of persons with disabilities. Economic & Political Weekly, 47(36), 20–22.Google Scholar
  23. Deakin, R. (2017). A safe place for all: Social dialogue and workplace harassment. In A. Arenas, D. Di Marco, L. Munduate, & M. C. Euwema (Eds.), Shaping inclusive workplaces through social dialogue. Cham: Springer.Google Scholar
  24. Department of Social Services. (2014). Evaluation of disability employment services 2010–2013. Australian Government. https://www.dss.gov.au/sites/default/files/documents/05_2014/des_evaluation_report.pdf. Accessed 9 Oct 2017.
  25. Dickens, L. (1999). Beyond the business case: A three-pronged approach to equality action. Human Resource Management Journal, 9(1), 9–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dickens, L. (Ed.). (2012). Making employment rights effective: Issues of enforcement and compliance. London: Bloomsbury Publishing.Google Scholar
  27. Einarsdóttir, A., Hoel, H., & Lewis, D. (2015). Fitting the bill? (Dis)embodied disclosure of sexual identities in the workplace. Work, Employment & Society.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0950017014568136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Einarsen, S., Hoel, H., Zapf, D., & Cooper, C. L. (2011). The concept of bullying and harassment at work: The European tradition. In S. Einarsen, H. Hoel, D. Zapf, & C. L. Cooper (Eds.), Bullying and harassment in the workplace: Developments in theory research and practice (2nd ed., pp. 3–39). London: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  29. Ellison, M. L., Russinova, Z., MacDonald-Wilson, K. L., & Lyass, A. (2003). Patterns and correlates of workplace disclosure among professionals and managers with psychiatric conditions. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 18, 3–13.Google Scholar
  30. Fevre, R., Foster, D., Jones, M., & Wass, V. (2016). Closing disability gaps at work: Deficits in evidence and variations in experience. Cardiff: Cardiff University.Google Scholar
  31. Fevre, R., Grainger, H., & Brewer, R. (2010). Discrimination and unfair treatment in the workplace. British Journal of Industrial Relations, 49, s207–ss35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Fevre, R., Lewis, D., Robinson, A., & Jones, T. (2012). Trouble at work. London: Bloomsbury Academic Press.Google Scholar
  33. Fevre, R., Nichols, T., Prior, G., & Rutherford, I. (2009). Fair treatment at work report: Findings from the 2008 survey. London: Department for Business, Innovation and Skills.Google Scholar
  34. Fevre, R., Robinson, A., Jones, T., & Lewis, D. (2010). Researching workplace bullying: The benefits of taking an integrated approach. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 13(1), 71–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Fevre, R., Robinson, A., Lewis, D., & Jones, T. (2013). The ill-treatment of employees with disabilities in British Workplaces. Work Employment & Society, 27(2), 288–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Finne, L. B., Knardahl, S., & Lau, B. (2011). Workplace bullying and mental distress – A prospective study of Norwegian employees. Scandinavian Journal of Work Environmental Health, 37(4), 276–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. First Findings: 6th European Working Conditions Survey. (2015). Dublin: Eurofound.  https://doi.org/10.2806/59106.
  38. Foster, D. (2007). Legal obligation or personal lottery? Employee experiences of disability and the negotiation of adjustments in the public-sector workplace. Work, Employment & Society, 21(1), 67–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Foster, C., & Harris, L. (2005). Easy to say, difficult to do: Diversity management in retail. Human Resource Management Journal, 15(3), 4–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Fox, S., & Stallworth, L. E. (2005). Racial/ethnic bullying: Exploring links between bullying and racism in the US workplace. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 66, 438–456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Fredman, S. (2011). Discrimination law. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  42. Frege, C. M., & Kelly, J. E. (2013). Comparative employment relations in the global economy. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Gardbaum, S. (2014). Separation of powers and the growth of judicial review in established democracies (or why has the model of legislative supremacy mostly been withdrawn from sale?). The American Journal of Comparative Law, 62(3), 613–640.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Gillberg, C., & Soderstrom, H. (2003). Learning disability. The Lancet, 362, 811–821.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Glambek, M., Skogstad, A., & Einarsen, S. (2015). Take it or leave: A five-year prospective study into workplace bullying and indicators of expulsion in working life. Industrial Health, 53, 160–170.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Goodley, D. (2001). ‘Learning difficulties’, the social model of disability and impairment: Challenging epistemologies. Disability & Society, 16(2), 207–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Grainger, H., & Fitzner, G. (2007). The First Fair Treatment at Work Survey: Executive summary – updated, employment relations research series no. 63. London: Department of Trade and Industry.Google Scholar
  48. Gratton, L., & Scott, A. (2016). The 100 year life; Living and working in an age of longevity. London: Bloomsbury Academic.Google Scholar
  49. Gray, M., Cripps, H., & Johal, A. (2009). British Social Attitudes Survey – Attitudes towards the rights of disabled people: Findings from cognitive interviews, Research report no. 588. London: Department for Work and Pensions.Google Scholar
  50. Handley, P. (2010). ‘Caught between a rock and a hard place’: Antidiscrimination legislation in the liberal state and the fate of the Australian Disability Discrimination Act. Australian Journal of Political Science, 36(3), 515–528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Harlan, S. H., & Robert, P. M. (1998). The social construction of disability in organizations: Why employers resist reasonable accommodation. Work and Occupations, 25, 397–435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Harrington, S., Rayner, C., & Warren, S. (2012). Too hot to handle? Trust and human resource practitioners’ implementation of anti-bullying policy. Human Resource Management Journal, 22(4), 392–408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hills, J., Brewer, M., Jenkins, S., Lister, R., Lupton, R., Machin, S., Mills, C., Modood, T., Rees, T., & Riddell, S. (2010). An anatomy of economic inequality in the UK: Report of the National Equality Panel. London: Government Equalities Office.Google Scholar
  54. Hirst, M., Thornton, P., & Dearey, M. (2004). The employment of disabled people in the public sector: A review of data and literature. London: Disability Rights Commission.Google Scholar
  55. Hodson, R., Roscigno, V. J., & Lopez, S. H. (2006). Chaos and the abuse of power: Workplace bullying in organizational and interactional context. Work and Occupations, 33(4), 382–416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hoel, H., & Beale, D. (2006). Workplace bullying, psychological perspectives and industrial relations: Towards a contextualized and interdisciplinary approach. British Journal of Industrial Relations, 44(2), 239–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Hoel, H., Cooper, C. L., & Faragher, B. (2001). Workplace Bullying in Great Britain: The impact of occupational status. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 10, 443–465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Hoel, H., Glaso, L., Hetland, J., Cooper, C. L., & Einarsen, S. (2010). Leadership styles as predictors of self-reported and observed workplace bullying. British Journal of Management, 21(2), 453–468.Google Scholar
  59. Hoel, H., Lewis, D., & Einarsdóttir, A. (2014). The ups and downs of LGBs’ workplace experiences: Discrimination, bullying and harassment of lesbian, gay and bisexual employees in Britain. Manchester: Manchester Business School.Google Scholar
  60. How fair is Britain? Equality, Human Rights and Good Relations in 2010. Manchester: Equality and Human Rights Commission.Google Scholar
  61. Hughes, B. (2015). Disabled people as counterfeit citizens: The politics of resentment past and present. Disability & Society, 30(7), 991–1004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. ILO. (2011). Equality at work: The continuing challenge – Report 1(B). Geneva: International Labour Organization.Google Scholar
  63. ILO. (2015a). Decent work for persons with disabilities: Promoting rights in the global development agenda. Geneva: International Labour Organization.Google Scholar
  64. ILO. (2015b). Statistics on the labour force characteristics of people with disabilities: A Compendium of national methodologies. Geneva: International Labour Organization.Google Scholar
  65. ITV. (2017, August 24). UK cuts ‘have created a human catastrophe for disabled people’. ITV Report. http://www.itv.com/news/2017-08-24/uk-cuts-have-created-a-human-catastrophe-for-disabled-people/. Accessed 9 Oct 2017.
  66. Jeffrey, R., & Singal, N. (2008). Measuring disability in India. Economic and Political Weekly, 43(12–13), 22–24.Google Scholar
  67. Jones, M. K. (2016). Disability and perceptions of work and management. British Journal of Industrial Relations, 54(1), 83–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Jones, M. K., Latreille, P. L., & Sloane, P. J. (2006). Disability, gender, and the British labour market. Oxford Economic Papers, 58, 407–449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Kamenetsky, S. B., Dimakos, C., Aslemand, A., Saleh, A., & Ali-Mohammed, S. (2016). Eliciting help without pity: The effect of changing media images on perceptions of disability. Journal of Social Work in Disability & Rehabilitation, 15(1), 1–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Keashly, L., & Harvey, S. (2005). Emotional abuse in the workplace. In S. Fox & P. E. Spector (Eds.), Counterproductive behavior. Investigations of actors and targets (pp. 201–236). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Kulkarni, M., & Lengnick-Hall, M. (2011). Socialization of people with disabilities in the workplace. Human Resource Management, 50(4), 521–540.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Lawson, A., & Gooding, C. (2005). Disability rights in Europe: From theory to practice. Oxford: Hart Publishing.Google Scholar
  73. Lewis, D., & Gunn, R. W. (2007). Workplace bullying in the public sector: Understanding the racial dimension. Public Administration, 83(3), 641–665.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Lewis, D., Hoel, H., & Einarsdóttir, A. (2013, June 26–29). Hard to research and hard to reach: Methodological challenges in exploring bullying, harassment and discrimination with lesbian, gay and bisexual employees. In 13th EURAM conference, IstanbulGoogle Scholar
  75. Leymann, H. (1992). Lönebidrag och mobbed: en svag grupps psykosciala arbetsvillkor I Sverige [State-subsides employees and bullying: on the psychosocial work conditions of a vulnerable group in Sweden]. Solna: Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen.Google Scholar
  76. Luria, G., Kalish, Y., & Weinstein, M. (2014). Learning disability and leadership: Becoming an effective leader. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 35, 747–761.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. MacRae, G., & Laverty, L. (2006). Discrimination doesn’t work: Disabled people’s experiences of applying for work in Scotland. Edinburgh: Leonard Cheshire Disability Scotland.Google Scholar
  78. Markus, A. (2016). Australians today. Victoria: Monash University.Google Scholar
  79. Mawdsley, H., & Lewis, D. (2017). Lean and mean: How New Public Management facilitates the bullying of UK employees with long-term health conditions. In D. Lewis, T. Bentley, & S. Teo, (Eds.), Public sector reforms and workplace ill-treatment, Public Money and Management, 37(5): 317–324.Google Scholar
  80. McCalla, S. A. (2015). Policy characteristics for the prevention of workplace bullying anteceded by heterosexism: A Delphi study. Journal of Psychological Issues in Organizational Culture, 6(2), 39–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Mehrotra, N. (2011). Disability rights movements in India: Politics and practice. Economic and Political Weekly, 46(6), 65–72.Google Scholar
  82. Mishra, A. K., & Gupta, R. (2006). Disability index: A measure of deprivation among disabled. Economic and Political Weekly, 41(38), 4026–4029.Google Scholar
  83. Mitra, S., & Sambamoorthi, U. (2006a). Disability estimates in India: What the census and NSS tell us. Economic and Political Weekly, 41(38), 4022–4026.Google Scholar
  84. Mitra, S., & Sambamoorthi, U. (2006b). Employment of persons with disabilities: Evidence from the national sample survey. Economic and Political Weekly, 41(3), 199–203.Google Scholar
  85. Moody, L., Saunders, J., Leber, M., Wójcik-Augustyniak, M., Szajczyk, M., & Rebernik, N. (2017). An exploratory study of barriers to inclusion in the European workplace. Disability and Rehabilitation, 39(20), 2047–2054.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Moore, S., & Wright, T. (2012). Shifting models of equality? Union equality reps in the public services. Industrial Relations Journal, 43(5), 433–447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Neilsen, M. B., Emberland, J. S., & Knardahl, S. (2017). Workplace bullying as a predictor of disability retirement. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 59(7), 609–614.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Nielsen, M. B., & Einarsen, S. (2012). Outcomes of exposure to workplace bullying: A meta-analytic review. Work and Stress, 26(4), 309–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Nielsen, M. B., Hetland, J., Matthiesen, S. B., & Einarsen, S. (2012). Longitudinal relationships between workplace bullying and psychological distress. Scandinavian Journal of Work Environmental Health, 38(1), 38–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Nielsen, M. B., Matthiessen, S. B., & Einarsen, S. (2010). The impact of methodological moderators on prevalence rates of workplace bullying. A meta-analysis. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 83, 955–979.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. OECD. (2010). Sickness, disability and work: Breaking the barriers. A synthesis of findings across OECD countries. Paris: Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development.Google Scholar
  92. Office for National Statistics. (2017, August 16). A08: Labour market status of disabled people. https://www.ons.gov.uk/employmentandlabourmarket/peopleinwork/employmentandemployeetypes/datasets/labourmarketstatusofdisabledpeoplea08. Accessed 9 Oct 2017.
  93. Oliver, M. (1983). Social work with disabled people. London: Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Ozarow, D. (2015). The unrepresentative house: The inconvenient truth about members of parliament. Human Resource Management International Digest, 23(5), 12–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Price, J., & Goyal, N. (2016). The fluid connections and uncertain spaces of women with disabilities: Making links across and beyond the global south. In S. Grech & K. Soldatic (Eds.), Disability in the global south (pp. 303–321). Cham: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Pyper, D., & McGuiness, F. (2015). Employment Tribunal Fees. London: Briefing Paper 07081 House of Commons.Google Scholar
  97. Rayner, C., & Lewis, D. (2011). Managing workplace bullying: The role of policies. In S. Einarsen, H. Hoel, D. Zapf, & C. L. Cooper (Eds.), Bullying and harassment in the workplace: Developments in theory, research and practice (2nd ed., pp. 327–340). Boca Raton: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  98. Richards, J., & Sang, K. (2016). Trade unions as employment facilitators for disabled employees. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 27(14), 1642–1661.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Richards, J., & Sang, K. (2018). The intersection of disability and in-work poverty in an advanced industrial nation: The lived experience of multiple disadvantage in a post-financial crisis UK. Economic and Industrial Democracy, 1–24.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0143831x17750474.
  100. Robert, P. M., & Harlan, S. (2006). Mechanisms of disability discrimination in large bureaucratic organizations: Ascriptive inequalities in the workplace. The Sociological Quarterly, 47, 599–630.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Roscigno, V. J., Lopez, S. H., & Hodson, R. (2009). Supervisory bullying, status inequalities and organizational context. Social Forces, 87(3), 1561–1589.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Russinova, Z., Griffin, S., Bloch, P., Wewiorski, N. J., & Rosoklija, I. (2011). Workplace prejudice and discrimination toward individuals with mental illnesses. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 35(3), 227–241.Google Scholar
  103. Saundry, R., Jones, C., & Wibberley, G. (2015). The challenge of managing informally. Employee Relations, 37(4), 428–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Siegmann, K. A., & Schiphorst, F. (2016). Understanding the globalizing precariat: From informal sector to precarious work. Progress in Development Studies, 16(2), 111–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Soldatic, K., & Chapman, A. (2010). Surviving the assault? The Australian disability movement and the neoliberal workfare state. Social Movement Studies, 9(2), 139–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Spiegel, T., De Bel, V., & Steverink, N. (2016). Keeping up appearances: The role of identity concealment in the workplace among adults with degenerative eye conditions and its relationship with wellbeing and career outcomes. Disability and Rehabilitation, 38(7), 627–636.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Vellani, F. (2015). David Cameron, the politics of doublethink and contemporary discourses of disability in the United Kingdom. Disability & Society, 30(6), 941–944.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Vickers, M. H. (1997). Life at work with “Invisible” Chronic Illness (ICI): The “Unseen”, unspoken, unrecognised dilemma of disclosure. Journal of Workplace Learning, 9(7), 240–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. von Schrader, S., Malzer, V., & Bruyère, S. (2014). Perspectives on disability disclosure: The importance of employer practices and workplace climate. Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal, 26(4), 237–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Waddington, L., & Lawson, A. (2009). Disability and non-discrimination law in the European Union: An analysis of disability discrimination law within and beyond the employment field. Luxembourg: European Commission.Google Scholar
  111. Whittle, R. (2002). The Framework Directive for equal treatment in employment and occupation: An analysis from a disability rights perspective. European Law Review, 27(3), 303–326.Google Scholar
  112. Willing to Work: National Inquiry into Employment Discrimination Against Older Australians and Australians with a Disability. Sydney: Australian Human Rights Commission, 2016.Google Scholar
  113. Wilson, M. C., & Scior, K. (2015). Implicit attitudes towards people with intellectual disabilities: Their relationship with explicit attitudes, social distance, emotions and contact. PLoS One, 10(9), e0137902.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0137902.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  114. Wilton, R. D. (2006). Disability disclosure in the workplace. Just Labor, 8, 24–39.Google Scholar
  115. Winter, J. A. (2003). The development of the disability rights movement as a social problem solver. Disability Studies Quarterly, 23(1), 33–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. WHO. (2011). International classification of functioning, disability and health. Geneva: WHO.Google Scholar
  117. World Health Organization and World Bank. (2011). World report on disability. Geneva: WHO.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of PlymouthPlymouthUK
  2. 2.Manchester Metropolitan UniversityManchesterUK
  3. 3.Huddersfield Business SchoolUniversity of HuddersfieldHuddersfieldUK

Personalised recommendations