Sexual Orientation and Workplace Bullying

  • Helge HoelEmail author
  • Duncan Lewis
  • Anna Einarsdóttir
Living reference work entry
Part of the Handbooks of Workplace Bullying, Emotional Abuse and Harassment book series (HWBEAH, volume 3)


By exploring the experience of non-heterosexual workers, this chapter illuminates issues previously overlooked in the bullying literature. Initially, some methodological barriers associated with research on such “hard-to-reach” groups are outlined. Pointing out methodological advances, the chapter reviews lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) workers’ experiences, concluding that they are at greater risk of bullying than their heterosexual colleagues, particularly with respect to more severe forms of bullying, with lesbians and bisexual women facing the greatest risk. Behaviourally, LGBs are exposed more often than heterosexuals to sexualized behaviour and social exclusion. With reality arguably different in many less developed countries, it is argued that the term homophobia rarely chimes with the experience of LGBs, with “minority stress” seemingly a useful concept when assessing consequences. In explaining bullying among LGBs, disclosure of non-heterosexuality in the workplace, a process considered unique to sexual minorities, is given attention. The conclusion is that the process is not entirely under the control of LGBs themselves as “the audience” plays a key role in assisting or indeed sometimes preventing disclosure. With disclosure processes (and bullying) often influenced by stereotypes, their nature and impact are considered. The roles of social identity and social categorization are explored as behaviours considered deviant in terms of group expectations and group prototypicality are penalized.

In response, the usefulness of Allport’s contact theory, emphasizing intergroup contact and the need for social support, is discussed together with enforcement of policy and behavioural standards to challenge prejudice and (unconscious) bias. While any organizational success is seen to rest on awareness, education and, not least, management commitment, achieving equal treatment for non-heterosexual workers is deemed to rest on the dominance of normative heterosexuality being challenged.


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The University of ManchesterManchesterUK
  2. 2.University of PlymouthDevonUK
  3. 3.University of YorkYorkUK

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