Traditional Survey and Questionnaire Platforms

  • Magen Mhaka MutepfaEmail author
  • Roy Tapera
Reference work entry


Platforms for administering surveys have evolved in the past 20 years, and increasingly electronic platforms are utilized by many research programs. Historically, paper-and-pencil interviewing was the norm, and in recent years computer-assisted interviewing has been adopted by many. This chapter considers the questionnaire as a mode of data collection, the use of survey methods that employed paper and pencil, their merits, and limitations. It also compares traditional and online surveys, reasons for their wider adoption, and potential into the future. The discussion also considers ethics liabilities and strengths of data management in which either data collection platforms are used. Researchers should choose the most appropriate method depending on the topic, goals of the study, geographic region, timeframe, and budget. The issues highlighted above may need exploring through methodological research.


Traditional surveys Questionnaires Online surveys Representativeness Social desirability Interviewers 


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of BotswanaGaboroneBotswana
  2. 2.Department of Environmental HealthUniversity of BotswanaGaboroneBotswana

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