Advertisement

Dark Behaviours and Shadowy Places: Bullying, Abuse and Harassment as Linked to Hidden Organizations

  • Craig R. Scott
Living reference work entry
Part of the Handbooks of Workplace Bullying, Emotional Abuse and Harassment book series (HWBEAH, volume 4)

Abstract

This chapter examines bullying, abuse and harassment as they relate in multiple ways to what are called hidden organizations—those where the identity of the collective and/or its members is communicatively concealed from key audiences. More specifically, several types of hidden organizations are identified that are of special importance here: secret societies, cults, hate groups, organized crime (including gangs), terrorist and counterterrorist groups, organizations engaged in dirty work and a range of others. Relevant literature is examined on each of these types of hidden organizations to uncover potential connections to destructive practices such as bullying, abuse and harassment both internal and external to the hidden organization. The chapter closes with key conclusions about these linkages and directions for continued research in this area.

References

  1. Allan, E. J., & Madden, M. (2012). The nature and extent of college student hazing. International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health, 24(1), 83–90.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Alleyne, E., Fernandes, I., & Pritchard, E. (2014). Denying humanness to victims: How gang members justify violent behavior. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 17(6), 750–762.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anheier, H. K. (2010). Secret societies. In H. K. Anheier & S. Toepler (Ed.), International encyclopedia of civil society (pt. 19, pp. 1355–1358). New York: Springer Science.Google Scholar
  4. Arnejčič, B. (2016). Mobbing in company: Levels and typology. Organizacija, 49(4), 240–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ashforth, B. E., & Kreiner, G. E. (1999). “How can you do it?”: Dirty work, and the challenge of constructing a positive identity. Academy of Management Review, 24, 413–434.Google Scholar
  6. Awan, I. (2017). Cyber-extremism: Isis and the power of social media. Society, 54(2), 138–149.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12115-017-0114-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Barnes, A., Cross, D., Lester, L., Hearn, L., Epstein, M., & Monks, H. (2012). The invisibility of covert bullying among students: Challenges for school intervention. Journal of Psychologists and Counsellors in Schools, 22(2), 206–226.Google Scholar
  8. Behar, R. (1991). The thriving cult of greed and power. Time, 137(18), 50.Google Scholar
  9. Billig, M. (2001). Humour and hatred: The racist jokes of the Ku Klux Klan. Discourse & Society, 12(3), 267–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bostdorff, D. M. (2004). The internet rhetoric of the Ku Klux Klan: A case study in web site community building run amok. Communication Studies, 55(2), 340–361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Boyle, K. M. (2015). Social psychological processes that facilitate sexual assault within the fraternity party subculture. Sociology Compass, 9(5), 386–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bullman, G. A. (2003). Abuse of female sweatshop laborers: Another form of sexual harassment that does not fit neatly into the judiciary’s current understanding of discrimination because of sex. Indiana Law Journal, 78, 1019–1043.Google Scholar
  13. Carpenter, B., Tait, G., Quadrelli, C., & Thompson, I. (2016). Investigating death: The emotional and cultural challenges for police. Policing and Society, 26(6), 698–712.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Christensen, P. (2010). Struggles with sobriety: Alcoholics Anonymous membership in Japan. Ethnology: An International Journal of Cultural and Social Anthropology, 49, 45–60.Google Scholar
  15. Conquergood, D. (1994). Homeboys and hoods: Gangs and cultural space. In L. R. Frey (Ed.), Group communication in contexts: Studies of natural groups (pp. 23–55). Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  16. Costas, J., & Grey, C. (2016). Secrecy at work: The hidden architecture of organizations. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Cowan, R. L. (2009). “Rocking the boat” and “Continuing to fight”: Un/productive justice episodes and the problem of workplace bullying. Human Communication, 12(3), 283–301.Google Scholar
  18. Crane, M. (2015). The tap: An examination of the controversy of secret societies on college campuses. Theses and Dissertations, University of South CarolinaGoogle Scholar
  19. Crawford, M. (2017). International sex trafficking. Women & Therapy, 40(1–2), 101–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Curry, G. D., Decker, S. H., & Pyrooz, D. (2014). Confronting gangs: Crime and community (3rd ed.). Los Angeles: Roxbury Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  21. D’Cruz, P., & Noronha, E. (2013). Navigating the extended reach: Target experiences of cyberbullying at work. Information and Organization, 23(4), 324–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Delph, E. W. (1978). The silent community: Public homosexual encounters (Vol. 3). Beverly Hills: Sage.Google Scholar
  23. Dougherty, D. S. (2009). Sexual harassment as destructive organizational process. In P. Lutgen-Sandvik & B. D. Sypher (Eds.), Destructive organizational communication: Processes, consequences, and constructive ways of organizing (pp. 203–225). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  24. Dussault, M., & Frenette, É. (2015). Supervisors’ transformational leadership and bullying in the workplace. Psychological Reports, 117, 724–733.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. Ellis, E. G. (2017, August 17). Whatever your side, doxing is a perilous form of justice. Wired. Retrieved October 31, 2017, from https://www.wired.com/story/doxing-charlottesville/
  26. Elwood, W. N., Greene, K., & Carter, K. K. (2003). Gentlemen don’t speak: Communication norms and condom use in bath houses. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 31, 277–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Eyre, A. (1994). Religious cults in twentieth century America. American Studies Today Online, 1. Retrieved June 7, 2011, from http://www.americansc.org.uk/Online/cults.htm
  28. Fitzgerald, L. F. (2017). Still the last great open secret: Sexual harassment as systemic trauma. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 18, 483–489.Google Scholar
  29. Fleming, F. (2016). Workplace bullying: A lesson for OH. Occupational Health, 68(4), 23–25.Google Scholar
  30. Flyverbom, M., Leonardi, P. M., Stohl, C., & Stohl, M. (2016). The management of visibilities in the digital age: Introduction. International Journal of Communication, 10, 98–109.Google Scholar
  31. Foer, A. A. (2000). The politics of antitrust in the United States: Public choice and public choices. University of Pittsburgh Law Review, 62, 475–497.Google Scholar
  32. “Fraternities in Canada”. (1948). The encyclopedia of Canada (Vol. II). University Associates of Canada. Retrieved January 6, 2018, from http://faculty.marianopolis.edu/c.belanger/quebechistory/encyclopedia/FraternitiesinCanada.htm
  33. Fritz, G. K. (2006). Awakening to scientology. The Brown University Child and Adolescent Behavior Letter, 22, 8.Google Scholar
  34. Gambetta, D. (2009). Codes of the underworld: How criminals communicate. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  35. Goldman, L., Giles, H., & Hogg, M. A. (2014). Going to extremes: Social identity and communication processes associated with gang membership. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 17(6), 813–832.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Goodboy, A. K., & Martin, M. (2015). The personality profile of a cyberbully: Examining the dark triad. Computers in Human Behavior, 49, 1–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Grow, M. (2012, February). Hidden hazards in the workplace. Chemistry in Australia, 79(1), 32–33.Google Scholar
  38. Hasler, S. (2013). Covert sexism in espionage. World Today, 69(1), 7–7.Google Scholar
  39. Hennigan, K., & Spanovic, M. (2012). Gang dynamics through the lens of social identity theory. In Youth gangs in international perspective (pp. 127–149). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hepburn, S., & Simon, R. J. (2010). Hidden in plain sight: Human trafficking in the United States. Gender Issues, 27(1–2), 1–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hetherington, A. (2000). Exploitation in therapy and counselling: A breach of professional standards. British Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 28(1), 11–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hirsh, M. (1997). Infernal revenue disservice. Newsweek, 130(15), 33.Google Scholar
  43. History that remains hidden. (1997, August 5). New York Times, 146, p. A18.Google Scholar
  44. Hodson, R., Roscigno, V. J., & Lopez, S. H. (2006). Chaos and the abuse of power: Workplace bullying in organizational and interactional context. Work and Occupations, 33(4), 382–416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Holmes, D., O’Byrne, P., & Gastaldo, D. (2007). Setting the space for sex: Architecture, desire and health issues in gay bathhouses. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 44(2), 273–284.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. Hudson, B. A. (2008). Against all odds: A consideration of core-stigmatized organizations. Academy of Management Review, 33(1), 252–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hudson, B. A., & Okhuysen, G. A. (2009). Not with a ten-foot pole: Core stigma, stigma transfer, and improbable persistence of men’s bathhouses. Organization Science, 20, 134–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hughes, E. C. (1951). Work and the self. In J. H. Rohrer & M. Sherif (Eds.), Social psychology at the crossroads (pp. 313–323). New York: Harper & Brothers.Google Scholar
  49. Hughes, E. C. (1962). Good people and dirty work. Social Problems, 10, 3–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Jenkinson, G. (2013). Working with cult survivors. Therapy Today, 24(4), 18–21.Google Scholar
  51. Keltner, D., Young, R. C., Heerey, E. A., Oemig, C., & Monarch, N. D. (1998). Teasing in hierarchical and intimate relations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75(5), 1231–1247.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. Kibble, D. G. (2016). Beheading, raping, and burning: How the Islamic State justifies its actions. Military Review, 96(2), 28–35.Google Scholar
  53. Kingree, J. B., & Thompson, M. P. (2013). Fraternity membership and sexual aggression: An examination of mediators of the association. Journal of American College Health, 61(4), 213–221.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. Klein, A. G. (2015). Vigilante media: Unveiling Anonymous and the hacktivist personal in the global press. Communication Monographs, 82, 379–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Konrad, H. (2002). Trafficking in human beings-the ugly face of Europe. Helsinki Monitor, 13, 260.Google Scholar
  56. Kostantopoulos, W. M., Ahn, R., Alpert, E. J., Cafferty, E., McGahan, A., Williams, T. P., Castor, J. P., Wolferstan, N., Purcell, G., & Burke, T. F. (2013). An international comparative public health analysis of sex trafficking of women and girls in eight cities: Achieving a more effective health sector response. Journal of Urban Health, 90, 1194–1204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kumar, V., & Skaperdas, S. (2008). On the economics of organized crime. Prepared for inclusion in N. Garoupa (Ed.), Criminal law and economics. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  58. Lee, J. J. (2005). Human trafficking in East Asia: Current trends, data collection, and knowledge gaps. International Migration, 43(1–2), 165–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Lewis, H. (2014). Out of the ordinary. New Statesman, 143(5238), 21.Google Scholar
  60. Lopez, S. H., Hodson, R., & Roscigno, V. J. (2009). Power, status, and abuse at work: General and sexual harassment compared. The Sociological Quarterly, 50, 3–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Lutgen-Sandvik, P., & Sypher, B. D. (Eds.). (2009). Destructive organizational communication: Processes, consequences, and constructive ways of organizing. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  62. Lutgen-Sandvik, P., Namie, G., & Namie, R. (2009). Workplace bullying. In P. Lutgen-Sandvik & B. D. Sypher (Eds.), Destructive organizational communication: Processes, consequences, and constructive ways of organizing (pp. 10–27). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  63. Mackert, J. (2014). The secret society and the social dynamics of terrorist behavior. Revue de Synthese, 135, 331–359.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. MacLean, N. K. (1994). Behind the mask of chivalry: The making of the second Ku Klux Klan. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  65. Macy, R. J., Giattina, M., Sangster, T. H., Crosby, C., & Montijo, N. J. (2009). Domestic violence and sexual assault services: Inside the black box. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 14(5), 359–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Malik, S., & Coulson, N. S. (2010). ‘They all supported me but I felt like I suddenly didn’t belong anymore’: An exploration of perceived disadvantages to online support seeking. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynecology, 31(3), 140–149.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  67. Martín-Peña, J., Rodríguez-Carballeira, Á., Escartín Solanelles, J., Porrúa García, C., & Willem Winkel, F. (2010). Strategies of psychological terrorism perpetrated by ETA’s network: Delimitation and classification. Psicothema, 22(1), 112.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. McGinley, M., Rospenda, K. M., Liu, L., & Richman, J. A. (2016). It isn’t all just fun and games: Collegiate participation in extracurricular activities and risk for generalized and sexual harassment, psychological distress, and alcohol use. Journal of Adolescence, 53, 152–163.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Miller, J. (2002). Violence and coercion in Sri Lanka’s commercial sex industry: Intersections of gender, sexuality, culture, and the law. Violence Against Women, 8(9), 1044–1073.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Murnen, S. K., & Kohlman, M. H. (2007). Athletic participation, fraternity membership, and sexual aggression among college men: A meta-analytic review. Sex Roles, 57(1–2), 145–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Neall, A. M., & Tuckey, M. R. (2014). A methodological review of research on the antecedents and consequences of workplace harassment. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 87(2), 225–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Neo-Nazi. (n.d.). Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved January 6, 2018, from https://www.splcenter.org/fighting-hate/extremist-files/ideology/neo-nazi
  73. Newton, P. J., Mulcahy, T. M., & Martin, S. E. (2008). Finding victims of human trafficking. Bethesda: University of Chicago, National Opinion Research Center.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. O’Briain, C. (2015). ISIL’s outward expression of internal conflict. USA Today Magazine, 143(2836), 56–58.Google Scholar
  75. Olson, P. (2014, February 14). Anonymous app ‘Secret’ will add more privacy controls. Forbes, p. 3.Google Scholar
  76. Onuoha, B. (2011). The state human trafficking and human rights issues in Africa. Contemporary Justice Review, 14(2), 149–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Oram, S., Stöckl, H., Busza, J., Howard, L. M., & Zimmerman, C. (2012). Prevalence and risk of violence and the physical, mental, and sexual health problems associated with human trafficking: Systematic review. PLoS Medicine, 9(5), e1001224.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Paoli, L. (2002). The paradoxes of organized crime. Crime, Law and Social Change, 37(1), 51–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Peterson, D., Taylor, T. J., & Esbensen, F. A. (2004). Gang membership and violent victimization. Justice Quarterly, 21(4), 793–815.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Pilch, I., & Turska, E. (2015). Relationships between Machiavellianism, organizational culture, and workplace bullying: Emotional abuse from the target’s and the perpetrator’s perspective. Journal of Business Ethics, 128(1), 83–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Pilisuk, M. (1998). The hidden structure of contemporary violence. Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology, 4(3), 197–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Ragsdale, K., Porter, J. R., Mathews, R., White, A., Gore-Felton, C., & McGarvey, E. L. (2012). “Liquor before beer, you’re in the clear”: Binge drinking and other risk behaviours among fraternity/sorority members and their non-Greek peers. Journal of Substance Use, 17(4), 323–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Reitman, J. (2011). Inside scientology: The story of America’s most secretive religion. New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.Google Scholar
  84. Rhodes, A., & Tscherne-Lempiainen, P. (2002). Human rights and terrorism in the Central Asian OSCE states. Helsinki Monitor, 13(1), 36–51.Google Scholar
  85. Robbins, A. (2002). Secrets of the tomb: Skull and Bones, the Ivy League, and the hidden paths of power. New York: Little, Brown.Google Scholar
  86. Roscigno, V. J., Lopez, S. H., & Hodson, R. (2009). Supervisory bullying, status inequalities and organizational context. Social Forces, 87(3), 1561–1589.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Salter, M. (2012). The role of ritual in the organised abuse of children. Child Abuse Review, 21(6), 440–451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Samnani, A. K., & Singh, P. (2016). Workplace bullying: Considering the interaction between individual and work environment. Journal of Business Ethics, 139, 537–549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Sanday, P. R. (2007). Fraternity gang rape: Sex, brotherhood, and privilege on campus (2nd ed.). New York: NYU Press.Google Scholar
  90. Schwartz, L. L., & Kaslow, F. W. (2001). The cult phenomenon: A turn of the century update. American Journal of Family Therapy, 29(1), 13–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Scott, C. R. (2013). Anonymous agencies, backstreet businesses, and covert collectives: Rethinking organizations in the 21st century. Stanford: Stanford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Scott, C. R. (2015). Bringing hidden organizations out of the shadows: Introduction to the special issue. Management Communication Quarterly, 29, 503–511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Scott, C. R., & Haseki, M. (2015). Communication, visibility, and the informal economy: A framework for future research. In P. Godfrey (Ed.), Management, society, and the informal economy (pp. 42–59). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  94. Scott, C. R., & Kang, K. (2017). Invisible domains and unexplored terrains: A multi-level view of (in)appropriately hidden organizations. In P. Salem & C. E. Timmerman (Eds.), Transformative practice and research in organizational communication (pp. 43–61). Hershey: IGI Global.Google Scholar
  95. Shelley, L. I., & Picarelli, J. T. (2002). Methods not motives: Implications of the convergence of international organized crime and terrorism. Police Practice and Research, 3(4), 305–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Sias, P. (2009). Social ostracism, cliques, and outcasts. In P. Lutgen-Sandvik & B. D. Sypher (Eds.), Destructive organizational communication: Processes, consequences, and constructive ways of organizing (pp. 145–163). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  97. Simmel, G. (1906). The sociology of secrecy and of secret societies. American Journal of Sociology, 11(4), 441–498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Steele, S. L. (2010). ‘Combating the scourge’: Constructing the masculine ‘other’ through US government anti-trafficking campaigns. Journal of Hate Studies, 9(1), 33–64.Google Scholar
  99. Stohl, C., & Stohl, M. (2011). Secret agencies: The communicative constitution of a clandestine organization. Organization Studies, 32(9), 1197–1215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Thornberry, T. P. (1999). Membership in youth gangs and involvement in serious and violent offending. In R. Loeber & D. P. Farrington (Eds.), Serious and violent juvenile offenders: Risk factors and successful interventions (pp. 147–166). Thousand Oaks: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Topolnicki, D., & McDonald, E. (1990). Presumed guilty by the IRS. Money, 19(10), 80–89.Google Scholar
  102. Twemlow, S. W., & Sacco, F. C. (2003). Reflections on the making of a terrorist. In C. Covington, P. Williams, J. Arundale, & J. Knox (Eds.), Terrorist and war: Unconscious dynamics of political violence (pp. 97–123). London: Karnac.Google Scholar
  103. Tynes, R. (2006). US counter-terrorism policies in Africa are counter to development. African Security Review, 15, 108–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Urban, H. B. (2006). Fair game: Secrecy, security, and the Church of Scientology in Cold War America. Journal of the American Academy of Religion, 74, 356–389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Van Oudenaren, J. S. (2014). Enduring menace: The triad societies of southeast China. Asian Affairs: An American Review, 41(3), 127–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Vickers, M. H. (2014). Towards reducing the harm: Workplace bullying as workplace corruption – A critical review. Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal, 26(2), 95–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Waltman, M. S. (2003). Stratagems and heuristics in the recruitment of children into communities of hate: The fabric of our future nightmares. Southern Communication Journal, 69, 22–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Ward, D. J. (2011). The lived experience of spiritual abuse. Mental Health, Religion and Culture, 14(9), 899–915.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Webb, J. W., Tihanyi, L., Ireland, D., & Sirmon, D. G. (2009). You say illegal, I say legitimate: Entrepreneurship in the informal economy. Academy of Management Review, 34, 492–510.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Weber, E. (1999). Apocalypses: Prophecies, cults, and millennial beliefs through the ages. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  111. White, R., & Mason, R. (2012). Bullying and gangs. International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health, 24(1), 57–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Wilkinson, W. C., Jr. (2006). Memories of the Ku Klux Klan in one Indiana town. The Indiana Magazine of History, 102, 339–354.Google Scholar
  113. Williams, P. (2001). Transnational criminal networks. In J. Arquilla & D. Ronfeldt (Eds.), Networks and netwars: The future of terror, crime and militancy (pp. 61–97). Santa Monica: Rand.Google Scholar
  114. Wolfe, A. W., & Blithe, S. J. (2015). Managing image in a core-stigmatized organization: Concealment and revelation in Nevada’s legal brothels. Management Communication Quarterly, 29, 539–563.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Wood, J., Moir, A., & James, M. (2009). Prisoners’ gang-related activity: The importance of bullying and moral disengagement. Psychology, Crime & Law, 15(6), 569–581.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Year in Hate and Extremism. (2017, February 15). Intelligence Report. Retrieved September 30, 2017, from https://www.splcenter.org/fighting-hate/intelligence-report/2017/year-hate-and-extremism

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of CommunicationRutgers UniversityNew BrunswickUSA

Personalised recommendations