Advertisement

Counterterrorist Legislation Effects on Human Rights and Civil Liberties: A Global Perspective

  • Eran ShorEmail author
Living reference work entry
Part of the International Human Rights book series (IHR)

Abstract

Following the 9/11 terrorist attacks, most nations have passed new counterterrorist legislation. One of the common assumptions about such legislation is that it is almost always detrimental to individual human rights and civil freedoms. The majority of past studies, which examined a diverse set of countries, has suggested that this is indeed the case and that counterterrorist legislation almost always results in subsequent repression. In this chapter, I reassess these assumptions in a more systematic fashion, analyzing large-scale cross-national data. The analyses presented here rely on a comprehensive database of nation-level counterterrorist legislation and update my work reported in 2016 in Social Science Research and in Studies in Conflict and Terrorism in 2018. These analyses show that the effects of legislation vary by levels of initial repression. Legislation has a negative effect on respect for civil liberties in countries with moderate levels of repression. However, this effect diminishes or disappears in traditionally non-repressive countries and reverses in countries with high levels of repression.

Keywords

Terrorism Counterterrorist legislation Human rights Civil liberties Cross-national 

References

  1. Adelman H (2007) Canada’s balancing act: protecting human rights and countering terrorist threats. In: Brysk A, Shafir G (eds) National insecurity and human rights: democracies debate counterterrorism. University of California Press, Berkeley, pp 137–156Google Scholar
  2. Almqvist J (2008) Human rights critique of European judicial review: counter-terrorism sanctions. Int Comp Law Q 57:303–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alonso R, Reinares F (2005) Terrorism, human rights and law enforcement in Spain. Terror Polit Violence 17:265–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Biggio F (2002) Neutralizing the threat: reconsidering existing doctrines in the emerging war on terrorism. Case West Reserv J Int Law 34(1):1–43Google Scholar
  5. Cassel E (2004) The war on civil liberties: how Bush and Ashcroft have dismantled the bill of rights. Chicago Review Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  6. Chang N (2002) Silencing political dissent: how post-september 11 anti-terrorism measures threaten our civil liberties. Seven Stories Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  7. Charters DA (ed) (1994) The deadly sin of terrorism: it’s effect on democracy and civil liberty in six countries. Greenwood Press, WestportGoogle Scholar
  8. Chomsky N (1991) International terrorism: image and reality. In: George A (ed) Western state terrorism. Routledge, New York, pp 12–38Google Scholar
  9. Chomsky N (2011) 9–11: was there an alternative. Seven Stories Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  10. Cingranelli DL, Richards DL (2010) The Cingranelli-Richards (Ciri) Human Rights Database. http://www.humanrights.com. Retrieved 19 Dec 2010
  11. Clarke M (2010) Widening the net: China’s anti-terror laws and human rights in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region. Int J Hum Rights 14(4):542–558CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Crenshaw M (ed) (1983) Terrorism, legitimacy and power: the consequences of political violence. Wesleyan University Press, MiddletownGoogle Scholar
  13. Crenshaw M (2001) Counterterrorism policy and the political process. Stud Confl Terror 24:329–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Davenport C (2007) State repression and political order. Annu Rev Polit Sci 10:1–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dershowitz AM (2002) Shouting fire: civil liberties in a turbulent age. Little, Brown & Company, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  16. Donkin S, Bronitt S (2013) Critical perspectives on the evaluation of counter-terrorism strategies: counting costs of the ‘war on terror’ in Australia. In: Masferrer A, Walker C (eds) Counter-terrorism, human rights and the rule of law: crossing legal boundaries in defence of the state. Edward Elgar, LondonGoogle Scholar
  17. Donnelly J (1989) Universal human rights in theory and practice. Cornell University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  18. Donnelly J (1999) The social construction of international human rights. In: Dunne T, Wheeler NJ (eds) Human rights in global politics. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 71–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Donohue LK (2008) The cost of counterterrorism. Stanford University Press, StanfordCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dreher A (2006) Does globalization affect growth? Evidence from a new index of globalization. Appl Econ 38(10):1091–1110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dreher A, Gassebner M, Siemers L-H (2010) Does terrorism threaten human rights? Evidence from panel data. J Lan Econ 53:65–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dreher A, Gassebner M, Siemers L-H (2012) Globalization, economic freedom, and human rights. J Confl Resolut 56(3):516–546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Duner B (2008) Disregard for security: the human rights movement and 9/11. In: Terrorism and human rights. Routledge, London/New York, pp 78–93Google Scholar
  24. Earl J (2011) Political repression: iron fists, velvet gloves, and diffuse control. Annu Rev Sociol 37:261–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Elliott M (2009) Torture, deportation and extra-judicial detention: instruments of the “war on terror”. Camb Law J 68(2):245–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Epifanio M (2011) Legislative response to international terrorism. J Peace Res 48(3):399–411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Etzioni A (2004) How Patriotic is the Patriot Act? Freedom versus security in the age of terrorism. Routledge, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  28. Falk R (2007) Encroaching on the Rule of Law: Pst-9/11 Policies within the United States. In: Brysk A, Shafir G (eds) National insecurity and human rights: democracies debate counterterrorism. University of California Press, Berkeley, pp 14–36Google Scholar
  29. Fenwick H (2002) Responding to 11 September: detention without trial under the anti-terrorism crime and Security Act 2001. In: Freedman L (ed) Superterrorism: policy responses. Blackwell Publishing, Malden, pp 80–104Google Scholar
  30. Fenwick M (2005) Japan’s response to terrorism Post-9/11. In: Ramraj VV, Hor M, Roach K (eds) Global anti-terrorism law and policy. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  31. Fenwick H, Phillipson G (2005) Legislative over-breadth, democratic failure and the judicial response: fundamental rights and the UK’s anti-terrorist legal policy. In: Ramraj VV, Hor M, Roach K (eds) Global anti-terrorism law and policy. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  32. Forsythe DP (2007) The United States: protecting human dignity in an era of insecurity. In: Brysk A, Shafir G (eds) National insecurity and human rights: democracies debate counterterrorism. University of California Press, Berkeley, pp 37–55Google Scholar
  33. Frank DJ, Hironaka A, Schofer E (2000) The nation-state and the natural environment over the twentieth century. Am Sociol Rev 65:96–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Galli F (2013) Freedom of thought or ‘thought-crimes’? Counter-terrorism and freedom of expression. In: Masferrer A, Walker C (eds) Counter-terrorism, human rights and the rule of law: crossing legal boundaries in defence of the state. Edward Elgar, LondonGoogle Scholar
  35. Golder B, Williams G (2006) Balancing national security and human rights: assessing the legal response of common law nations to the threat of terrorism. J Comp Policy Anal 8(1):43–62Google Scholar
  36. Hafner-Burton EM, Tsutsui K (2005) Human rights in a globalizing world: the paradox of empty promises. Am J Sociol 110:1373–1411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Haubrich D (2003) September 11, anti-terror laws and civil liberties: Britain, France and Germany compared. Gov Oppos 38:3–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Head M (2002) Counter-terrorism laws: a threat to political freedom, civil liberties and constitutional rights. Melb Univ Law Rev 26:666–689Google Scholar
  39. Hewitt C (ed) (1984) The effectiveness of anti-terrorist policies. University Press of America, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  40. Ignatieff M (2002) Human rights, the laws of war, and terrorism. Soc Res 69:1137–1158Google Scholar
  41. Ignatieff M (2004) The lesser evil: political ethics in the age of terror. Princeton University Press, PrincetonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kalhan A, Conroy G, Kaushal A, Miller S, Rakoff J (2006) Colonial continuities: human rights, terrorism, and security laws in India. Columbia J Asian Law 20:93–234Google Scholar
  43. Keck ME, Sikkink K (1998) Activists beyond Borders: advocacy networks in international politics. Cornell University Press, IthacaGoogle Scholar
  44. Kumar C (2005) Human rights implications of National Security Laws in India: combatting terrorism while preserving civil liberties. Denver J Int Law Policy 33(2)Google Scholar
  45. Meyer JW, Boli J, Thomas GM, Ramirez FO (1997) World society and the nation-state. Am J Sociol 103:144–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Minow M (2005) What is the greatest evil. Harv Law Rev 118(7):2134–2169Google Scholar
  47. Oehmichen A (2009) Terrorism and anti-terror legislation: the terrorised legislator? Intersentia, AntwerpenGoogle Scholar
  48. Piazza JA, Walsh JI (2009) Transnational terror and human rights. Int Stud Q 53:125–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Poe SC, Tate CN (1994) Repression of human rights to personal integrity in the 1980s: a global analysis. Am Polit Sci Rev 88:853–872CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Poe SC, Neal Tate C, Keith LC (1999) Repression of the human right to personal integrity revisited: a global cross-national study covering the years 1976-1993. Int Stud Q 43:291–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Pokalova E (2014) Legislative responses to terrorism: what drives states to adopt new counterterrorism legislation. Terror Polit Violence 27:1–23.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09546553.2013.809339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Risse T, Ropp SC, Sikkink K (eds) (1999) The power of human rights: international norms and domestic change. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  53. Scheppele KL (2004a) Law in time of emergency: states of exception and the temptations of 9/11. J Const Law 6:1001–1083Google Scholar
  54. Scheppele KL (2004b) Other People’s Patriot acts: Europe’s response to September 11. Loyola Law Rev 50:89–148Google Scholar
  55. Schofer E, Meyer JW (2005) The worldwide expansion of higher education in the twentieth century. Am Sociol Rev 70:898–920CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Sentas V (2014) Traces of terror: counter-terrorism law, policing, and race. Oxford University Press, OxfordCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Shafir G (2007) Torturing democracies: the curious debate over the “Israeli Model”. In: Brysk A, Shafir G (eds) National insecurity and human rights: democracies debate counterterrorism. University of California Press, Berkeley, pp 92–117Google Scholar
  58. Shor E (2008a) Conflict, terrorism, and the socialization of human rights norms: the spiral model revisited. Soc Probl 55:117–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Shor E (2008b) Utilizing rights and wrongs: right-wing, the “right” language, and human rights in the Gaza disengagement. Sociol Perspect 51:803–826CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Shor E (2010) Terrorism and human rights in the new Millennium: in search for equilibrium. Qual Sociol 33:205–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Shor E (2011) Constructing a global counterterrorist legislation database: dilemmas, procedures, and preliminary analyses. J Terror Res 2(3):249–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Shor E (2016) Counterterrorist legislation and subsequent terrorism: does it work? Soc Forces 95(2):525–557CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Shor E (2017) Why do they legislate? A cross-national time-series analysis of terrorism and counterterrorist legislation. Soc Probl 64(2):106–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Shor E, Yonay Y (2010) Sport, national identity, and media discourse over foreign athletes in Israel. Nationalism Ethn Polit 16:483–503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Shor E, Yonay Y (2011) “Play and shut up”: the silencing of Palestinian athletes in Israeli media. Ethn Racial Stud 34:229–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Shor E, Filkobski I, Ben-Nun Bloom P, Alkilabi H, Su W (2016) Does counterterrorist legislation hurt human rights practices? A longitudinal cross-national analysis. Soc Sci Res 58:104–121.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssresearch.2015.12.007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Shor E, Baccini L, Tsai C-t, Lin T-H, Chen T (2018) Counterterrorist legislation and respect for civil liberties: an inevitable collision? Stud Confl Terror 41:339–364.  https://doi.org/10.1080/1057610X.2017.1314653CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Sikkink K (2004) Mixed signals: U.S. human rights policy and Latin America. Cornell University Press, IthacaGoogle Scholar
  69. Sikkink K, Walling CB (2006) Argentina’s contribution to global trends in transitional justice. In: Roht-Arriaza N, Mariezcurrena J (eds) Transitional justice in the twenty-first century: beyond truth versus justice. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 301–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Skaaning S-E (2015) The Civil Liberty Dataset (CLD). Department of Political Science, Aarhus University, AarhusGoogle Scholar
  71. Skaaning S-E, Moller J (2012) The development of civil liberties during the third wave: levels and sequences. Paper presented at the APSA 2012 annual meeting paper, Washington, DC. http://www.apsanet.org/content_77049.cfm?navID=988
  72. START National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism (2013) Global terrorism database. Retrieved from http://www.start.umd.edu/gtd
  73. Whitaker B (2007) Exporting the Patriot Act? Democracy and the ‘War on Terror’ in the Third World. Third World Q 28(5):1017–1032CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Wilkinson P (2001) Terrorism versus democracy: the liberal state response. Frank Cass, PortlandGoogle Scholar
  75. Williams R (2006) Generalized ordered logit/partial proportional odds models for ordinal dependent variables. Stata J 6(1):58–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Yonay Y, Shor E (2014) Ethnic coexistence in deeply divided societies: the case of Arab athletes in the Hebrew media. Sociol Q 55:396–420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Zhou Z (2015) Balancing security and liberty. Duncker & Humblot Gmbn, DresdenGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of SociologyMcGill UniversityMontrealCanada

Personalised recommendations