Rare-Earth-Doped Laser Fiber Fabrication Using Vapor Deposition Technique

Living reference work entry

Later version available View entry history


Rare-earth (RE)-doped silica-based fiber lasers and amplifiers with very high output power and excellent beam quality are efficient devices for a variety of applications in industry, science, and medicine. Extreme power densities beyond the kW level and complicated fiber structures put high demands on fiber material properties and the preparation technology concerning both efficient laser operation and high-power stability. Silica is the preferred basic material. The host properties can be improved using co-dopants, which influence the optical properties (as refractive index distribution, absorption and emission behavior, optical background losses).

Over the years, alternative technologies to the common modified chemical vapor deposition (MCVD) process have been developed to incorporate REs and the most important co-dopant aluminum (Al) into silica. These fabrication methods differ in process control and regarding the properties of the manufactured preforms and fibers, such as geometry, incorporated level of REs and co-dopants, homogeneity of dopant concentration, and refractive index distribution. Here, two different technologies are described in detail. The MCVD process combined with solution doping is the most widely used and successful technique due to its simplicity and versatility. However, this technology has several limitations concerning geometry, doping and refractive index homogeneity, and the incorporation of very high REs and Al concentrations. One option to overcome these limitations is the MCVD process combined with gas phase doping for REs and Al.

Advantageous and detrimental effects of the relevant technology must be carefully considered for an optimal design for a high-power laser fiber.


  1. A.J. Boyland, A.S. Webb, S. Yoo, F.H. Mountfort, M.P. Kalita, R.J. Standish, J.K. Sahu, D.J. Richardson, D.N. Payne, J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 912 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. M. Bubnov, V.N. Vechkanov, A.N. Guryanov, K.V. Zotov, D.S. Lipatov, M.E. Likhachev, M.V. Yashkov, Inorg. Mat. 45, 444 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. G. Canat, S. Jetschke, S. Unger, L. Lombard, P. Bourdon, J. Kirchhof, V. Jolivet, A. Dolfi, O. Vasseur, Opt. Lett. 33, 2701 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. D.J. Di Giovanni, J.B. Mac Chesney, T.Y. Kometani, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 113, 58 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. T. Izawa, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 1220 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. C. Jauregui, H.-J. Otto, F. Stutzki, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, Opt. Exp. 23(16), 20203 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Y. Jeong, J.K. Sahu, D.N. Payne, J. Nilsson, Opt. Exp. 12, 6088 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. S. Jetschke, S. Unger, U. Röpke, J. Kirchhof, Opt. Exp. 15, 14838 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. S. Jetschke, S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, M. Leich, J. Kirchhof, Opt. Exp. 16, 15540 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. S. Jetschke, S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, M. Leich, J. Fiebrandt, M. Jäger, J. Kirchhof, Opt. Exp. 21, 7590 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. S. Jetschke, S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, M. Leich, M. Jäger, Opt. Exp. 24, 13009 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, Proc. SPIE 4957, 1 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, S. Jetschke, B. Knappe, Proc. SPIE 5350, 222 (2004a)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, J. Dellith, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 345–346, 234 (2004b)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, S. Jetschke, B. Knappe, Proc. SPIE 5723, 261 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, S. Grimm, V. Reichel, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 2399 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, S. Jetschke, A. Schwuchow, M. Leich, V. Reichel, Proc. SPIE, 7195 (2009)Google Scholar
  18. T. Kitabayashi, M. Ikeda, M. Nakai, T. Sakai, K. Himeno, K. Ohashi, Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OThC5 (2006)Google Scholar
  19. J.J. Koponen, M.J. Söderlund, S.K.T. Tammela, H. Po, Proc. SPIE 5990, 599008 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. A. Langner, M. Such, G. Schötz, S. Grimm, F. Just, M. Leich, C. Mühlig, J. Kobelke, A. Schwuchow, O. Mehl, O. Strauch, R. Niedrig, B. Wedel, G. Rehmann, V. Krause, Proc. SPIE 7914, 79141U (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. M. Leich, S. Jetschke, S. Unger, J. Kirchhof, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28, 65 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. F. Lindner, C. Aichele, A. Schwuchow, M. Leich, A. Scheffel, S. Unger, Proc. SPIE 8982, 89820R (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. J. Mac Chesney, D.J. Di Giovanni, J. Am, Ceram. Soc. 73, 3527 (1990)Google Scholar
  24. K.E. Mattsson, Opt. Exp. 17, 17855 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. K.E. Mattsson, Opt. Exp. 19, 19797 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. J.J. Montiel i Ponsoda, I. Norin, C. Ye, M.J. Söderlund, A. Tervonen, S. Honkanen, Opt. Exp. 20, 25085 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. T.F. Morse, A. Kilian, L. Reinhart, W. Risen, J.W. Cipolla, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 129, 93 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. S.R. Nagel, J.B. Mac Chesney, K.L. Walker, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 459 (1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, P.R. Barber, J.E. Caplen, A.C. Tropper, D.C. Hanna, Opt. Commun. 136, 375 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. U. Pedrazza, V. Romano, V. Romano, Opt. Mat. 29, 905 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. A. Popp, A. Voss, T. Graf, S. Unger, J. Kirchhof, H. Bartelt, Laser Phys. Lett. 8, 887 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. D.J. Richardson, J. Nilsson, W.A. Clarkson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, 63 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. M. Saha, A. Pal, R. Sen, IEEE Photon. Techn. Lett. 26, 58 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. E.A. Saveley, K.M. Golant, Opt. Mat. Exp. 5, 2337 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. K. Schuster, S. Unger, C. Aichele, F. Lindner, S. Grimm, D. Litzkendorf, J. Kobelke, J. Bierlich, K. Wondraczek, H. Bartelt, Adv. Opt. Techn. 3, 447 (2014)Google Scholar
  36. E.H. Sekiya, P. Barua, K. Saito, A.J. Ikushima, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354, 4737 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. S. Tammela, M. Söderlund, J. Koponen, V. Philippov, P. Stenius, Proc. SPIE 6116, 61160G (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. F. Tosco, CSELT, Fiber Optics Communication Handbook (TAB Professional and Reference Books, Blue Ridge Summit, 1990)Google Scholar
  39. E. Townsend, S.B. Poole, D.N. Payne, Electron. Lett. 23, 329 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. R.P. Tumminelli, B.C. Mc Collum, E. Snitzer, J. Lightw. Technol. 8, 1680 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. A. Tünnermann, H. Zellmer, W. Schöne, A. Giesen, K. Contag, in High-Power Diode Lasers, ed. by R. Diehl (Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, 2000), p. 369Google Scholar
  42. A. Tünnermann, S. Höfer, A. Liem, J. Limpert, M. Reich, F. Röser, T. Schreiber, H. Zellmer, Proc. SPIE 5709, 301 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, J. Dellith, J. Kirchhof, Proc. SPIE 6469, 646913 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. S. Unger, J. Dellith, A. Scheffel, J. Kirchhof, Phys. Chem. Glasses Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. B 52, 41 (2011)Google Scholar
  45. S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, S. Jetschke, S. Grimm, A. Scheffel, J. Kirchhof, Proc. SPIE 8621, 862116 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. S. Unger, F. Lindner, C. Aichele, M. Leich, A. Schwuchow, J. Kobelke, J. Dellith, K. Schuster, H. Bartelt, Laser Phys. 035103, 24 (2014)Google Scholar
  47. J. Wang, S. Gray, D.T. Walton, M. Li, X. Chen, A. Liu, L.A. Zenteno, Proc. SPIE 6890, 689006 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. C. Wirth, O. Schmidt, A. Kliner, T. Schreiber, R. Eberhardt, A. Tünnermann, Opt. Lett. 36, 3061 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. J. Zheng, W. Zhao, B. Zhao, C. Hou, Z. Li, G. Li, Q. Gao, P. Ju, W. Gao, S. She, P. Wu, W. Li, Opt. Mat. Exp. 7, 1259 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. H. Zimer, M. Kozak, A. Liem, F. Flohrer, F. Doerfel, P. Riedel, S. Linke, R. Horley, F. Ghiringhelli, S. Demoulins, M. Zervas, J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, S. Jetschke, T. Peschel, T. Schreiber, Proc. SPIE 7914, 791414 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Fiber OpticsLeibniz Institute of Photonic Technology (Leibniz IPHT)JenaGermany

Section editors and affiliations

  • Kyunghwan Oh
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Physics and Applied PhysicsYonsei UniversitySeoulSouth Korea

Personalised recommendations