Advertisement

Family Therapy: A Necessary Core Competence for Psychiatric Trainees

  • Nathalie Raes
  • Ine Jespers
  • Gilbert Lemmens
Living reference work entry
Part of the Mental Health and Illness Worldwide book series (MHIW)

Abstract

Psychiatric disorders interact with the social context of the affected individual. The family interactions may affect the mental health of the individual, and simultaneously, psychiatric disorders affect family members and relationships. As a psychiatrist, it is important to have insights in how patients and families can be stuck in negative circles reinforcing psychiatric symptoms and undermining good outcome. The interactions between psychiatric disorders and family interactions are discussed. Some theoretical concepts and techniques of systemic family therapy will be given, and the importance of family intervention in psychiatric care will be stressed. For the psychiatrist in training, this implicates that he should acquire the skills to perform a systematic assessment and plan intervention with attention for the family system. He should obtain knowledge of family management, interactions, and be able to recognize dysfunctional patterns.

Keywords

Family therapy Systemic therapy Competence Psychiatric trainee 

References

  1. Alonso J, Angermeyer MC, Bernert S, Bruffaerts R, Bugrha TS, Bryson H et al (2004) Prevalence of mental disorders in Europe: results from the European Study of the Epidemiology of Mental Disorders (ESEMeD) project. Acta Psychiatr Scand 420:21–27Google Scholar
  2. Anda R, Felitti V, Bremner J, Walker J, Whitfield C, Perry B, Dube S, Giles W (2006) The enduring effects of abuse and related adverse experiences in childhood. A convergence of evidence from neurobiology and epidemiology. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 256(3):174–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barbato A, D’Avanzo B (2008) Efficacy of couple therapy as a treatment for depression: a meta-analysis. Psychiatry Q 79:121–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Beach S, Whisman M (2012) Affective disorders. J Marital Fam Ther 38(1):201–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Beardslee W, Gladstone T, O’Connor E (2011) Transmission and prevention of mood disorders among children of affectively ill parents: a review. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 50(11):1098–1109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Berg L, Rostila M, Hjern A (2016) Parental death during childhood and depression in young adults – a national cohort study. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 57(9):1092–1098CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Berman E, Heru A, Grunebaum H, Rolland J, Wood B, Bruty H (2006) Family skills for general psychiatry residents: meeting ACGME core competency requirements. Acad Psychiatry 30(1):69–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Burkhouse A, Uhrlass D, Stone L, Knopik V, Gibb B (2012) Expressed emotion-criticism and risk of depression onset in children. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 41(6):771–777Google Scholar
  9. Carr A (2012) Family therapy: concepts process and practice. Wiley-Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  10. Carr C, Martins C, Stingel A, Lemgruber V, Juruena M (2013) The role of early life stress in adult psychiatric disorders: a systematic review according to childhood trauma subtypes. J Nerv Ment Dis 201(12):1007–1020CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Depestele L, Soenens B, Lemmens G, Dierckx E, Schoevaerts K, Claes L (2017) Parental autonomy-support and psychological control in eating disorder patients with and without binge-eating/purging behaviour and non-suicidal self-injury. J Soc Clin Psychol 36(2):126–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Di Paola F, Faravelli C, Ricca V (2010) Perceived expressed emotion in anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder. Compr Psychiatry 51(4):401–405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Diamond G, Russon J, Levy S (2016) Attachment-based family therapy: a review of the empirical support. Fam Process 55:595–610CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dwyer S, Nicholson J, Battistutta D (2006) Parent and teacher identification of children at risk of developing internalizing or externalizing mental health problems: a comparison of screening methods. Prev Sci 7(4):343–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fergusson D, Horwood L (1998) Exposure to interparental violence in childhood and psychosocial adjustment in young adulthood. Child Abuse Negl 22(5):339–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Glynn SM, Cohen AN, Dixon LB, Niv N (2006) The potential impact of the recovery movement on family interventions for schizophrenia: opportunities and obstacles. Schizophr Bull 32(3):451–463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Handa H, Ito A, Tsuda H, Ohsawa I, Ogawa T (2009) Low level of parental bonding might be a risk factor among women with prolonged depression: a preliminary ivestigation. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 63:721–729CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hartnett D, Carr A, Hamilton E, O’Reilly G (2017) The effectiveness of functional family therapy for adolescent behavioral and substance misuse problems: a meta-analysis. Fam Process 56:607–619CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Henggeler S, Schaeffer C (2016) Multisystemic therapy: clinical overview, outcomes, and implementation research. Fam Process 55:514–528CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Heru A (2006) Family psychiatry: from research to practice. Am J Psychiatry 163(6):962–968CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Heru A, Keitner G, Glick I (2012) Family therapy: the neglected core competence. Acad Psychiatry 36(3):433–435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Holtom-Viesel A, Allan S (2013) A systematic review of the literature on family functioning across all eating disorder diagnoses in comparison to control families. Clin Psychol Rev 34(1):29–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hudson J, Rapee R (eds) (2005) Psychopathology and the family. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  24. Jewell T, Blessitt E, Stewart C, Simic M, Eisler I (2016) Family therapy for child and adolescent eating disorders: a critical review. Fam Process 55:577–594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Johnson S, Cuellar A, Gershon A (2016) The influence of trauma, life events, and social relationships on bipolar depression. Psychiatr Clin N Am 39(1):87–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kavanaugh D, Hooley J (1992) Recent developments in expressed emotion and schizophrenia. Br J Psychiatry 160:6011–6020Google Scholar
  27. Le Grange D, Lock J, Loeb K, Nicholls D (2010) Academy for eating disorders position paper: the role of the family in eating disorders. Int J Eat Disord 43(1):1–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Lebow J (2016) Editorial: empirically supported treatments in couple and family therapy. Fam Process 55:385–389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lemmens G, Eisler I, Buysse A, Heene E, Demyttenaere K (2009) The effects of mood of adjunctive single family and multi-family group therapy in the treatment of hospitalized patients with major depression: a 15 months follow-up study. Psychother Psychosom 78:98–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Liddle H (2016) Multidimensional family therapy: evidence base for transdiagnostic treatment outcomes, change mechanisms, and implementation in community settings. Fam Process 55:558–576CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Maybery D, Reypert A, Patrick K, Goodyear M, Crase L (2009) Prevalence of parental mental illness in Australian families. The Psychiatrist 33(1):22–26Google Scholar
  32. McCrady B, Wilson A, Muñoz E, Fink B, Fokas K, Borders A (2016) Alcohol-focused behavioral couple therapy. Fam Process 55(3):443–459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. McFarlane W (2016) Family interventions for schizophrenia and the psychoses: A Review. Fam Process 55(3):460–482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. McLaughlin K, Breslau J, Green J, Lakoma M, Sampson N, Zaslavsky A, Kessler R (2011) Childhood socio-economic status and the onset, persistence, and severity of DSM-IV mental disorders in a US national sample. Soc Sci Med 73(7):1088–1096CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. McLaughlin K, Gadermann A, Hwang I, Sampson N, Al-Hamzawi A, Andrade L et al (2012) Parent psychopathology and offspring mental disorders: results from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. Br J Psychiatry 200(4):290–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Morgan V, Waterreus A, Jablensky A, Mackinnon A, McGrath J, Carr V, Bush R, Castle D, Cohen M, Harvey C, Galletly C, Stain H, Neil A, McGorry P, Hocking B, Shah S, Saw S (2012) People living with psychotic illness in 2010: the second Australian national survey of psychosis. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 46(8):735–752CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Oud M, Mayo-Wilson E, Braidwood R, Schulte P, Jones S, Morriss R et al (2016) Psychological interventions for adults with bipolar disorder: systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Psychiatry 208:213–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Prescott C, Kendler K (1999) Genetic and environmental contributions to alcohol abuse and dependence in a population-based sample of male twins. Am J Psychiatry 156(1):34–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Priebe S, Burns T, Craig T (2013) The future of academic psychiatry may be social. Br J Psychiatry 202(5):319–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Rehman U, Gollan J, Mortimer A (2008) The marital context of depression: research, limitations and new directions. Clin Psychol Rev 28:179–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Reid J, Patterson G, Snyder J (2002) Antisocial behavior in children and adolescents. A developmental analysis and model of intervention. American Psychological Association, Washington, DCCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Reiss F (2013) Socioeconomic inequalities and mental health problems in children and adolescents: a systematic review. Soc Sci Med 90:24–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Rhys P, Obradovic A, Morgan B (2016) Relational recovery: beyond individualism in the recovery approach. Adv Ment Health 15:108.  https://doi.org/10.1080/18387357.2016.1243014CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Schaub A (2002) New family interventions and associated research in psychiatric disorders. Springer, Wien/New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Snoeck H, Engels R, Janssens J, van Strien T (2007) Parental behaviour and adolescents’ emotional eating. Appetite 49:223–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Soenens B, Vansteenkiste M, Vandereycken W, Luyten P, Sieren E, Goossens L (2008) Perceived parental psychological control and eating-disordered symptoms: maladaptive perfectionism as a possible intervening variable. J Nerv Ment Dis 196:144–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Tetley A, Moghaddam N, Dawson D, Rennoldson M (2014) Parental bonding and eating disorders: a systematic review. Eat Behav 15(1):49–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Transvag O, Kristoffersen K (2008) Experience of being the spouse/cohabitant of a person with bipolar affective disorder: a cumulative process over time. Scand J Caring Sci 22(1):5–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Van Wijngaarden B, Schene A, Koeter M (2004) Family caregiving in depression: impact on caregivers’ daily life, distress, and help seeking. J Affect Disord 81(3):211–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Vansteenkiste M, Simons J, Lens W, Sheldon K, Deci E (2004) Motivating learning, performance, and persistence: the synergistic effects of intrinsic goal contents and autonomy-supportive contexts. J Pers Soc Psychol 87:246–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Wiebe S, Johnson S (2016) A review of the research in emotionally focused therapy for couples. Fam Process 55:390–407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. William R, McFarlane W (2016) Family interventions for schizophrenia and the psychoses: a review. Fam Process 55:460–482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Yap M, Pilkington P, Ryan S, Jorm A (2014) Parental factors associated with depression and anxiety in young people: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Affect Disord 156:8–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryGhent University HospitalGhentBelgium
  2. 2.KARUS Psychiatric instituteMelleBelgium

Personalised recommendations