Mental Health Among Latin American Migrants in the USA

  • Renato D. AlarcónEmail author
Living reference work entry
Part of the Mental Health and Illness Worldwide book series (MHIW)


The Hispanic or Latino population is currently the largest minority in the USA. Thirty-three of the total of 54 million Hispanics in the country are not US-born and have arrived as immigrants from countries of the large territory that includes Central and South America and the Caribbean Islands, besides Spain. This article reviews the sociodemographic realities of Latino migrants to the USA, specific circumstances of the actual migration process, and its impact on the mental health of migrants and their families. The acculturation experience and its stressful nature are examined as one relevant source of a variety of clinical conditions. Prevalence and incidence figures of depressive, anxious, substance use, psychotic, and other disorders are analyzed, and the characteristics, resources, adherence, response, and outcomes of services provided to Latino migrants are also described. The growing relevance and role that the Hispanic community plays in the daily life of the USA, positive and negative factors in their adaptation to the host country, and research needs from clinical and social sciences’ perspectives are presented.


Latino/Hispanic migrants Cultural psychiatry Acculturation Mental health services 


  1. Acosta FX (1980) Self-described reasons for premature termination of psychotherapy by Mexican American, black American and Anglo-American patients. Psychol Rep 47:435–443PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Acosta YD, De la Cruz GP (2011) The foreign-born from Latin America and the Caribbean: 2010. U.S. Census Bureau, Department of Commerce, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  3. Acosta FX, Sheehan JG (1976) Preferences toward Mexican American and Anglo-American psychotherapists. J Consult Clin Psychology 44:272–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aguilar-Gaxiola SA, Gullotta TP (eds) (2008) Depression in Latinos. Assessment, treatment and prevention. Springer Science, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  5. Alarcón RD, Parekh A, Wainberg ML, Duarte CS, Araya R, Oquendo MA (2016) Hispanic immigrants in the USA: social and mental health perspectives. Lancet 3:860–870. in pressPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Alcalde MC (2014) What it means to be a man: violence and homophobia in Latino masculinities on and off screen. J Pop Cult 47:537–553CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Alderete E, Vega WA, Kolody B, Aguilar-Gaxiola S (2000) Lifetime prevalence of and risk factors for psychiatric disorders among Mexican migrant farmworkers in California. Am J Public Health 90:608–614PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Alegría M, Canino G, Stinson FS, Grant BF (2006) Nativity and DSM-IV psychiatric disorders among Puerto Ricans, Cuban Americans, and non-Latino Whites in the U.S.: results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. J Clin Psychiatry 67:56–65PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Alegría M, Mulvaney-Day N, Torres M, Polo A, Cao Z, Canino G (2007a) Prevalence of psychiatric disorders across Latino subgroups in the U.S. Am J Public Health 97:68–75PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Alegría M, Mulvaney-Day N, Woo M, Torres M, Gao S, Oddo V (2007b) Correlates of past-year MH service use among Latinos: results from the National Latino and Asian American Study. Am J Public Health 97:76–83PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Alegría M, Shrout PE, Woo M, Guarnaccia P, Sribney W, Vila D, Polo A, Cao Z, Mulvaney-Day N, Torres M, Canino G (2007c) Understanding differences in past year psychiatric disorders for Latinos living in the U.S. J Soc Sci Med 65:214–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Alegría M, Atkins M, Farmer E, Slaton E, Stelk W (2010) One size does not fit all: taking diversity, culture and context seriously. Admin Pol Ment Health 37:48–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Alegría M, Carson N, Flores M, Li X, Shi P, Lessios AS, Polo A, Allen M, Fierro M, Interian A, Jimenez A, La Roche M, Lee C, Lewis-Fernández R, Livas-Stein G, Safar L, Schuman C, Storey J, Shrout PE (2014) Activation, self-management, engagement and retention in behavioral health care: a randomized clinical trial of the DECIDE intervention. JAMA Psychiat 71:557–565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. American Psychiatric Association (2013) Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 5th edn (DSM-5). APA, ArlingtonGoogle Scholar
  15. Antoniades J, Mazza D, Brijnath B (2014) Efficacy of depression treatments for immigrant patients: results from a systematic review. BMC Psychiatry 14:176. Scholar
  16. Aranda MP, Castañeda I, Lee PJ, Sobel E (2001) Stress, social support, and coping as predictors of depressive symptoms: gender differences among Mexican Americans. Soc Work Res 25:37–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Arias E, Skinner M, Bailey D, Correa V (2001) Models of acculturation and health behaviors among Latino immigrants to the U.S. Soc Sci Med 53:41–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Atkinson DR, Casas A, Abreu J (1992) Mexican-American acculturation, counselor ethnicity and cultural sensitivity, and perceived counselor competence. J Couns Psychol 39:515–520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bacallao M, Smokowski PR (2007) The costs of getting ahead: Mexican family system changes after immigration. J Fam Relat 56:52–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Backman G, Hunt P, Koshla R, Jaramillo-Strouss C, Fikre BM, Rumble C, Pevalin D, Acurio-Paez D, Armijos-Pineda M, Frisancho A, Tarco D, Motlagh M, Farcasanu D, Vladescu C (2008) Health systems and the right to health: an assessment of 194 countries. Lancet 372:2047–2085PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Baker B, Rytina N (2013) Estimates of the unauthorized immigrant population residency in the US, January 2012. Homeland Security Office of Immigration Statistics, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  22. Balán IC, Moyers TB, Lewis-Fernández R (2013) Motivational pharmacotherapy: combining motivational interviewing and antidepressant therapy to improve treatment adherence. Psychiatry 76:203–209PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Barrio C, Yamada AM, Hough PR, Hawthorne W, García P, Jeste DV (2003) Ethnic disparities in use of public MH management services among patients with Schizophrenia. Psychiatr Serv 54:1264–1270PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Beiser M, Hyman I (1997) Refugees’ time perspectives and mental health. Am J Psychiatry 154:996–1002PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Berk ML, Albers LA, Schur CL (1996) The growth in the U.S. uninsured population: trends in Hispanic subgroups, 1977 to 1992. Am J Public Health 86:572–576PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Berry JW (1989) Psychology of Acculturation. Neb Symp Motiv 37:201–234Google Scholar
  27. Berry J (1997) Immigration, acculturation and adaptation. Appl Psychol Int Rev 46:5–68Google Scholar
  28. Breslau J, Aguilar-Gaxiola S, Borges G, Kendler KS, Su M, Kessler RC (2007) Risk for psychiatric disorder among immigrants and their US-born descendants: evidence from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. J Nerv Ment Dis 195:189–195PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Breslau J, Borges G, Tancredi D et al (2011) Migration from Mexico to the United States and subsequent risk for depressive and anxiety disorders: a cross national study. Arch Gen Psychiatry 68:428–433PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Burnam MA, Hough RL, Karno M, Escobar JI (1987) Acculturation and lifetime prevalence of psychiatric disorders among Mexican Americans in Los Angeles. J Health Soc Behav 28:89–102PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Cabassa LJ (2003) Measuring acculturation: where we are and where we need to go. Hisp J Behav Sci 25:127–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Cabassa LJ, Zayas LH, Hansen MC (2006) Latino adults’ access to mental health care: a review of epidemiological studies. Adm Policy Ment Health Ment Health Serv Res 33.
  33. Canabal ME, Quiles JA (1995) Acculturation and socioeconomic factors as determinants of depression among Puerto Ricans in the U.S. Soc Behav Personal 23:235–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Cantero PJ, Richardson JL, Baezconde-Garbanati L, Marks G (1999) The association between acculturation and health practices among middle age and elderly Latinos. Ethn Dis 9:166–180PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. Caplan S (2007) Latinos, acculturation and acculturative stress: a dimensional concept analysis. Policy Polit Nurs Pract 8:93–106PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Carballo M (2006) The challenges of migration and health. World Hosp Health Serv 42:18–19PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. Carreira MM, Beeman T (2014) Voces: Latino students on life in the United States. Santa Barbara ABC-CLIO-LLC, Santa BarbaraGoogle Scholar
  38. Carteret M (2011) Cultural values of Latino patients and families. Dimens Culture, DenverGoogle Scholar
  39. Cattan P (1993) The diversity of Hispanics in the U.S. workforce. Mon Labor Rev 118:3–15Google Scholar
  40. Cohen J (2000) The Global Burden of Disease Study: a useful projection of future global health? J Public Health Med 22:518–524PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Cohen CI, Marmo L (2013) Racial and ethnic differences in prevalence of psychotic symptoms in the general population. Psychiatr Serv 64:1103–1109PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Colby SL, Ortman JM (2014) The baby boom cohort in the U.S. 2012 to 2060: population estimates and projections. US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  43. Comas-Díaz L (2011) Multicultural care: a clinician’s guide to cultural competence. American Psychological Association, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  44. Compton WM, Conway KP, Stinson FS, Grant BF (2006) Changes in the prevalence of major depression and comorbid substance use disorders in the United States between 1991–1992 and 2001–2002. Am J Psychiatry 163:2141–2147PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Connolly WE (2005) Pluralism. Duke University Press, DurhamCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Cuellar I, Arnold B, Maldonado R (1995) Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans II: a revision of the original ARSMA scale. Hisp J Behav Sci 17:275–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Cummings JR, Wen H, Ko M, Druss BG (2013) Geography and the Medicaid MH care infrastructure: implications for health care reform. JAMA Psychiat 70:1084–1090CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Davies I (2009) Latino immigration and social change in the U.S.: toward an ethical immigration policy. J Bus Ethics 88:377–391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Díaz E, Woods SW, Rosenheck RA (2005) Effects of ethnicity on psychotropic medication adherence. Community Ment Health J 41:521–537PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Ding H, Hargraves L (2009) Stress-associated poor health among adult immigrants with a language barrier in the United States. J Immigr Minor Health 11:446–452PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Dixon L, Lewis-Fernández R, Goldman H, Interian A, Michaels A, Kiley MC (2011) Adherence disparities in mental health: opportunities and challenges. J Nerv Ment Dis 199:815–820PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Durand J, Massey DS, Charvet F (2000) The changing geography of Mexican immigration to the U.S.: 1910–1996. Soc Sci Q 81:1–15Google Scholar
  53. Durand J, Massey DS, Zenteno RM (2001) Mexican immigration to the U.S.: continuities and changes. Lat Am Res Rev 36:107–115PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. Durning A (1991) Asking how much is enough. In: State of the world 1991. World Watch Institute report. Norton, New York, pp 153–159Google Scholar
  55. Fisher S, Cooper CL (eds) (1990) On the move: the psychology of change and transition. Wiley, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  56. Flaskerud JH (1986) The effects of culture-compatible intervention on the utilization of mental health services by minority clients. Community Ment Health J 22:127–141PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Folsom DP, Gilmer T, Barrio C, Moore DJ, Bucardo J, Lindamer LA, Garcia P, Hawthorne W, Rough R, Patterson T, Jeste DV (2007) A longitudinal study of the use of mental health services by persons with serious mental illness: do Spanish-speaking Latinos differ from English-speaking Latinos and Caucasians? Am J Psychiatry 164:1173–1180PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Fortuna LR, Porche MV, Alegría M (2008) Political violence, psychosocial trauma, and the context of MH services use among immigrant Latinos in the U.S. Ethn Health 13:435–463PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Fullerton HN Jr (1991) Labor force projections: the baby boom moves on. Mon Labor Rev 116:38–45Google Scholar
  60. García CM, Gilchrist L, Vazquez G, Leite A, Raymond N (2011) Urban and rural immigrant Latino youths’ and adults’ knowledge and beliefs about mental health resources. J Immigr Minor Health 13:500–509PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Gee GC, Ryan A, Lafflame DJ, Holt J (2006) Self-reported discrimination and mental health status among African descendants, Mexican Americans and other Latinos in the New Hampshire REACH 2010 Initiative: the added dimension of immigration. Am J Public Health 96:1821–1828PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Gil RM, Vásquez CI (1996) The María paradox: how Latinas can merge old world traditions with new world self-esteem. Putnam, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  63. Goldner EM, Hsu L, Waraich P, Somers JM (2002) Prevalence and incidence studies of schizophrenic disorders: a systematic review of the literature. Can J Psychiatr 47:833–843CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Grant BF, Stinson FS, Hasin DS, Dawson DA, Chou SP, Anderson K (2004) Immigration and lifetime prevalence of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders among Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic whites in the U.S.: results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Arch Gen Psychiatry 61:1226–1233PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Grieco EM, Acosta YD, De La Cruz GP, Gambino C, Gryn T, Larson LJ, Trevelyan EN, Walters NP (2012) The foreign-born population in the U.S.: 2010. U.S. Census Bureau, Department of Commerce, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  66. Gureje O, Adeyemi O, Enyidah N, Ekpo M, Udofia O, Uwakwe R, Wakil A (2008) Mental disorders among adult Nigerians: risks, prevalence and treatment. In: Kessler RC, Üstün TB (eds) The WHO world mental health surveys. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 211–237Google Scholar
  67. Gureje O, Olowosegun O, Adebayo K, Stein DJ (2010) The prevalence and profile of non-affective psychosis in the Nigerian Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing. World Psychiatry 9:50–55PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Hough RL, Landsverk JA, Karno M, Burnam A, Timbers DM, Escobar JI, Regier DA (1987) Utilization of health and mental health services by Los Angeles Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic whites. Arch Gen Psychiatry 44:702–709PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Huey SJ, Polo AJ (2008) Evidence-based psychosocial treatments for ethnic minority youth. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol 37:262–301PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Interian A, Lewis-Fernández R, Gara MA, Escobar JI (2013) A randomized-controlled trial of an intervention to improve antidepressant adherence among Latinos with depression. Depress Anxiety 30:688–696PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Jacoby T (ed) (2004) Reinventing the melting pot. The new immigration and what it means to be American. Basic Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  72. Jurado D, Alarcón RD, Martínez-Ortega JM, Mendieta-Marichal Y, Gutierrez-Roja l, Gurpegui M (2017) Factors associated with psychological distress or common mental disorders in migrant populations across the world. Rev Psiq y Salud Mental, 10(1):45–58. Scholar
  73. Karno M, Hough RL, Burnam MA, Escobar JI, Timbers DM, Santana F, Boyd JH (1987) Lifetime prevalence of specific psychiatric disorders among Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic whites in Los Angeles. Arch Gen Psychiatry 44:695–701PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Kessler RC, Üstün TB (eds) (2008) The WHO World Mental Health Surveys. Global perspectives on the epidemiology of mental disorders. Cambridge University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  75. Kessler RC, Sonnega A, Bromet E, Hughes M, Nelson CB (1995) Post-traumatic stress disorder in the National Comorbidity Survey. Arch Gen Psychiatry 52:1048–1060PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Kessler RC, Berglund PA, Demler O, Jun R, Walters EE (2005) Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R). Arch Gen Psychiatry 62:1313–1320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Kessler RC, Angermeyer M, Anthony JC, DeGraaf R, Denyttenaerek K, Gasquet I, De Girolamo G, Gluzman S, Gureje O, Haro JM, Kawakami N, Karam A, Levinson D, Medina-Mora ME, Oakley-Browne MA, Posada-Villa J, Stein DJ, Adley Tsang CH, Aguilar-Gaxiola S, Alonso J, Lee S, Heerniga S, Pennell BE, Berglund P, Gruber MJ, Petukhova M, Chatterji S, Ustun TB (2007) Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distribution of mental disorders in the WHO’s World Mental health Survey initiative, World Psychiatry, 6(3):168–176Google Scholar
  78. Keyes CLM (ed) (2013) Mental well-being: international contributions to the study of positive mental health. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  79. Keyes KM, Martins SS, Hatzenbuehler MN, Blanco C, Bates LM, Hasin BS (2012) Mental health service utilization for psychiatric disorders among Latinos living in the U.S.: the role of ethnic subgroup, ethnic identity and language/social preferences. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 47:283–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Kochhar R (2008) Hispanic migration and integration in the US. Pew Hispanic Center Allianz Knowledge, Nov. 11, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  81. Kopelowicz A, Zarate R, Wallace CJ, Liberman RP, Lopez SR, Mintz J (2012) The ability of multifamily groups to improve treatment adherence in Mexican Americans with Schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry 69:265–273PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Kraidy M (2005) Hybridity, or the cultural logic of globalization. Temple University Press, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  83. Krieger N (1994) Epidemiology and the web of causation: has anyone seen the spider? Soc Sci Med 39:887–903PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Lanouette NM, Folsom DP, Sciolla A, Jeste DV (2009) Psychotropic medication nonadherence among United States Latinos: a comprehensive literature review. Psychiatr Serv 60:157–174PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Lee J, Donlan W, Cardoso EE, Paz JJ (2013) Cultural and social determinants of health among indigenous Mexican migrants in the United States. Soc Work Public Health 28:607–618PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Lewis-Fernández R, Aggarwal K (2013) Culture and psychiatric diagnosis. In: Alarcón RD (ed) Cultural psychiatry. Karger, Basel, pp 15–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Livingston IL, Neita M, Riviere L, Livingston SL (2007) Gender, acculturative stress and Caribbean migrants’ health in the United States of America: an exploratory study. West Indian Med J 56:213–222PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Lueck K, Wilson M (2011) Acculturative stress in Latino immigrants: the impact of social, socio-psychological and migration-related factors. Int J Intercult Relat 35:186–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Markides K, Coreil J (1986) The health of Hispanics in the south-western U.S.: an epidemiological paradox. Public Health Rep 10:253–265Google Scholar
  90. McGuley M, Carlo G, Crockett LJ, Rafaelli M, Stone RA, Iturbide MI (2010) Stress and healing: the relationships among acculturative stress, gender and prosocial tendencies in Mexican-Americans. J Soc Psychol 150:34–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Minsky S, Escobar J, Gara M, Miskimen T, Vega WA (2003) Diagnostic patterns in Latino, African American and European American psychiatric patients. Arch Gen Psychiatry 60:637–644PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Miranda J, Chung JY, Green BL, Krupnick J, Siddique J, Revicki DA, Belin T (2003) Treating depression in predominantly low-income young minority women: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 290:57–65PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Morales LS, Cunningham WE, Brown JA, Liu H, Hays RD (1999) Are Latinos less satisfied with communication by health care providers? J Gen Int Med 14:409–417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Mrazek DA (2010) Psychiatric pharmacogenomics. Oxford University Press, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Mufson L, Dorta KP, Wickramaratne P, Nomura Y, Olfson M, Weissman MM (2004) A randomized effectiveness trial of interpersonal psychotherapy for depressed adolescents. Arch Gen Psychiatry 61:577–584PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Murray CJL, Lopez AD (eds) (1996) The Global Burden of Disease: a comprehensive assessment of mortality and disability from diseases, injuries and risk factors in 1990 and projected to 2020. Harvard University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  97. Odegaard O (1945) Emigration and insanity. Acta Psychiatr Scand 7(Suppl 4):1–206Google Scholar
  98. Olfson M, Feder A, Fuentes M, Gameroff MJ, Lewis-Fernandez R, Pilowsky D, Weissman MM (2002) Psychotic symptoms in an urban general medicine practice. Am J Psychiatry 159:1412–1419PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Opolka JL, Rascati KL, Brown CM, Gibson PJ (2003) Role of ethnicity in predicting antipsychotic medication adherence. Ann Pharmacother 37:625–630PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Oquendo MA, Lizardi D, Greenwald S, Weissman MM, Mann JJ (2004) Rates of lifetime suicide attempt and rates of lifetime major depression in different ethnic groups in the United States. Acta Psychiatr Scand 110:446–448PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Ornelas IJ, Perreira KM (2011) The role of migration in the development of depressive symptoms among Latino immigrant parents in the USA. Soc Sci Med 73:1169–1177PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Parra-Cardona JR, Bulock LA, Imig DR, Villarruel FA, Gold SJ (2006) “Trabajando duro todos los días”: learning from the experiences of Mexican-origin migrant families. Fam Relat 55:361–375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Passell JS, Cohn D (2014) Unauthorized migration total rise in 7 States, fall in 14. Pew Research Center, Hispanic Trends, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  104. Peifer KL, The-wei H, Vega W (2000) Help seeking by persons of Mexican origin with functional impairments. Psychiatr Serv 51:1293–1298PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Pomales J, Williams V (1989) Effects of level of acculturation and counseling style on Hispanic students’ perceptions of Counselor. J Couns Psychol 36:79–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Robins LN, Helzer JE, Weissman MM, Orvaschel H, Gruenberg E, Burke JD Jr, Regier DA (1984) Lifetime prevalence of specific psychiatric disorders in three sites. Arch Gen Psychiatry 41:949–958PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Saavedra-Castillo JE, Paz-Schaeffer V, Vargas-Murga H, Robles-Arana Y, Pomalima-Rodríguez R, González Farfán S, Zevallos-Bustamante S, Luna-Solís Y, Saavedra-Castillo C (2013) Estudio epidemiológico de Salud Mental en Lima Metropolitana y Callao, Replicación 2012. An Salud Mental 29(Suppl 1):9–392Google Scholar
  108. Sam DL, Berry JN (eds) (2006) The Cambridge handbook of acculturation psychology. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  109. Sánchez AR, Atkinson DR (1983) Mexican-American cultural commitment, preference for Counselor ethnicity, and willingness to use counseling. J Couns Psychol 30:215–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Schraufnagel TJ, Wagner AW, Miranda J, Roy-Byrne PP (2006) Treating minority patients with depression and anxiety: what does the evidence tell us? Gen Hosp Psychiatry 28:27–36PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Schwab M, Kaschka WP, Spina E (eds) (2010) Pharmacogenomics in psychiatry. Karger, BaselGoogle Scholar
  112. Silva H (2013) Ethnopsychopharmacology and pharmacogenomics. In: Alarcón RD (ed) Cultural psychiatry. Karger, Basel, pp 88–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Stepler R, Brown A (2016) Statistical portrait of Hispanics in the US. Pew Research Center, Hispanic Trends, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  114. Stuart H, Arboleda-Flores J, Sartorius N (eds) (2005) Stigma and mental disorders: international perspectives. World Psychiatry 4(Suppl 1):5–62Google Scholar
  115. Suárez-Richards M (ed) (2006) Introducción a la Psiquiatría, 3a edn. Ed. Polemos, Buenos AiresGoogle Scholar
  116. Torres JM, Wallace SP (2013) Migration circumstances, psychological distress, and self-rated physical health for Latino immigrants in the United States. Am J Public Health 103:1619–1627PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (2013) Labor force characteristics by race and ethnicity: 2012. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  118. US Census Bureau (2015) Public use microdata areas. Department of Commerce, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  119. Vega WA, Alderete E, Kolody B, Aguilar-Gaxiola S (1998) Illicit drug use among Mexicans and Mexican Americans in California: the effects of gender and acculturation. J Addict 93:1839–1850CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Vega WA, Sribney WM, Aguilar-Gaxiola S, Kolody B (2004) 12-month prevalence of DSM-III-R psychiatric disorders among Mexican Americans: nativity, social assimilation, and age determinants. J Nerv Ment Dis 192:532–541PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Vega WA, Sribney WM, Miskimen TM, Escobar JI, Aguilar-Gaxiola S (2006) Putative psychotic symptoms in the Mexican American population: Prevalence and co-occurrence with psychiatric disorders. J Nerv Ment Dis 194:471–477PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Villatoro AP, Morales ES, May VM (2014) Family culture in mental health help-seeking and utilization in a nationally representative sample of Latinos in the United States: the NLAAS. Am J Orthop 84:353–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Wells K, Klap R, Koike A, Sherbourne C (2001) Ethnic disparities in unmet need for alcoholism, drug abuse and MH care. Am J Psychiatry 158:2027–2032PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. World Health Organization (2000) Cross-national comparisons of the prevalences and correlates of mental disorders: Report of WHO’s International Consortium in Psychiatric Epidemiology. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 78(4):413–426Google Scholar
  125. World Health Organization (2001) The World Health Report 2001: Mental Health: New understanding, new hope. GenevaGoogle Scholar
  126. Zong J, Batalova J (2016) College-educated immigrants in the US. Migration Policy Institute, Spotlight Online J, February 3, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Mayo Clinic College of MedicineRochesterUSA
  2. 2.Honorio Delgado ChairUniversidad Peruana Cayetano HerediaLimaPeru

Personalised recommendations