Encyclopedia of Food and Agricultural Ethics

2019 Edition
| Editors: David M. Kaplan

Subsistence Orientation and Food

Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-024-1179-9_599



Subsistence orientation is a term to describe the practice of centering economic activities around the production of subsistence, the material and immaterial conditions of human life. Food, as a basic necessity of human survival, as well as a fundamental element of identity and culture, is an essential part of subsistence. Although often associated with poverty, the production of subsistence makes up the foundation of any economy and culture, yet it is differently organized depending on the dominant relations of production (Veronika Bennholdt-Thomsen and Mies 1999).

Mother-Child Relationships

Human life starts within a pure subsistence economy. A mother...

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© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Agricultural Economics, Sociology, and EducationThe Pennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA