Encyclopedia of Food and Agricultural Ethics

2019 Edition
| Editors: David M. Kaplan

Africa, Food, and Agriculture

Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-024-1179-9_486


Climate change; Crisis; Farming; Food security; Gender; Hunger; Intergenerational justice; Justice; Poverty; Subsistence; Women

Globally speaking, 216 million fewer people today than in 1990 are suffering from hunger (FAO 2015, 8). At the 1996 World Food Summit in Rome, world leaders pledged to reduce the number of hungry people in developing countries from a billion in 1990 to 515 million by 2015. Though this target was missed by 260 million, the population increase of 1.9 million meant that almost two billion people had been freed from hunger (FAO 2015, 9). The global South continues by far to carry most of this hunger burden. Of the world’s 795 million hungry today, 780 million (over 98%) are in the global South (FAO 2015, 8–9). 220 million (27%) are in sub-Saharan Africa (FAO 2015, 10), where a massive crisis in food security is well underway.

Research into African agricultural and food ethics focuses largely on commercial agriculture, concerning mainly genetically...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Amponsah, W. A. (2009, June 22–23). Food insecurity and other economic development challenges facing African countries: Are they caused only by commodity price volatility? International Agricultural Trade Research Consortium Analytic Symposium – Confronting Food Price Inflation: Implications for Agricultural Trade and Policies, Seattle. http://studylib.net/doc/13962983/food-insecurity-and-other-economic-development-challenges. Accessed 31 Oct 2017.
  2. Aweto, A. O. (2012). Shifting cultivation and secondary succession in the tropics. Wallingford: Centre for Agriculture and Biosciences International.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bang, H. N. (2008). Social vulnerability and risk perception to natural hazards in Cameroon two decades after the Lake Nyos gas disaster: What future prospect for the displaced disaster victims? Summer Academy for Social Vulnerability. United Nations University-Institute for Environment and Human Security (UNU-EHS), Bonn.Google Scholar
  4. Cline, W. (2007). Global warming and agriculture: Impact estimates by country. Washington, DC: Peterson Institute for International Economics.Google Scholar
  5. Cotula, L., Vermeulen, S., Leonard, R., & Keeley, J. (2009). Land grabbing or development opportunity? Agricultural investment and international land deals in Africa. London: IIED/FAO/IFAD.Google Scholar
  6. Fair Trade USA. (2017). Is there child labour in your chocolate? Huffington Post. https://www.huffingtonpost.com/fair-trade-usa/is-there-child-labour-in-y_b_9169898.html. Accessed 31 Oct 2017.
  7. FAO. (2008, April). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Crop prospects and food situation: Countries in crisis requiring external assistance, No. 2. http://www.fao.org/docrep/005/y6831e/y6831e-03.htm. Accessed 31 Oct 2017.
  8. FAO. (2015). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, International Fund for Agricultural Development, and World Food Programme. The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2015: Meeting the 2015 international hunger targets – Taking stock of uneven progress. Rome: FAO. http://www.fao.org/3/a4ef2d16-70a7-460a-a9ac-2a65a533269a/i4646e.pdf. Accessed 31 Oct 2017.
  9. FAO. (2017). The state of food and agriculture: Leveraging food systems for inclusive rural transformation. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.Google Scholar
  10. Glazebrook, T. (2011). Women and climate change: A case-study from northeast Ghana. Hypatia, 26(4), 762–782.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Glazebrook, T., & Kola-Olusanya, A. (2011). Justice, conflict, capital, and care: Oil in the Niger Delta. Environmental Ethics, 33(2), 163–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Holt-Giménez, E. (2008). Policy brief no. 16: The world food crisis. Oakland: FoodFirst Institute for Food and Development Policy. https://foodfirst.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/12/PB16-The-World-Food-Crisis.pdf. Accessed 31 Oct 2017
  13. IITA. (2007). Facing up to food crisis in sub-Saharan Africa: The challenges, gaps, and role of agricultural policies. http://old.iita.org/cms/details/news_details.aspx?articleid=1039&zoneid=81. Accessed 31 Oct 2017.
  14. IPCC. (2007). Climate change 2007: Synthesis report, Geneva. http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/publications_ipcc_fourth_assessment_report_synthesis_report.htm. Accessed 31 Oct 2017.
  15. IPCC. (2014). Climate change 2014: Impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. Part A: Global and sectoral aspects. Contribution of working group II to the fifth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, eds. C. B. Field, V. R. Barros, D. J. Dokken, K. J. Mach, M. D. Mastrandrea, T. E. Bilir, M. Chatterjee, K. L. Ebi, Y. O. Estrada, R. C. Genova, B. Girma, E. S. Kissel, A. N. Levy, S. MacCracken, P. R. Mastrandrea, & L. L. White. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Jennings, J. & Magrath, J. (2009). What happened to the seasons? Oxfam GB. http://policy-practice.oxfam.org.uk/publications/what-happened-to-the-seasons-changing-seasonality-may-be-one-of-the-major-impac-112501. Accessed 31 Oct 2017.
  17. Kabasa, J. D., & Sage, I. (2009). Climate change and food security in Africa. Climate change in Africa: Adaptation, mitigation and governance challenges (CIGI special report). H. Besada & N. K. Sewankambo. Waterloo: The Centre for International Governance Innovation (CIGI).Google Scholar
  18. Kola-Olusanya, A. (2012). Exploring the synergy between climate change, African food and economic crises in the 21st century. British Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 4(2), 26–39. www.ajournal.co.uk/HSpdfs/HSvolume4(2)/HSVol.4%20(2)%20Article%203.pdf. Accessed 31 Oct 2017
  19. Lowder, S. K., Skoet, J., & Raney, T. (2016). The number, size, and distribution of farms, smallholder farms, and family farms worldwide. World Development, 87, 16–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. MacDonald, C. (2006). Pioneer’s business model for genetically modified foods for Africa. The Business Ethics Blog. https://businessethicsblog.com/2006/03/28/pioneers-business-model-for-genetically-modified-foods-for-africa/. Accessed 31 Oct 2017.
  21. Mbabazi, J., Bah, M. E. M., & Verdier-Chouchane, A. (2015). Transforming Africa’s agriculture to improve competitiveness. Africa competitiveness report 2015, Chapter 2.1. World Economic Forum. http://reports.weforum.org/africa-competitiveness-report-2015/chapter-2-1-transforming-africas-agriculture-to-improve-competitiveness/. Accessed 31 Oct 2017.
  22. Morrow, B. H. (1999). Identifying and mapping community vulnerability. Disasters, 23(1), 1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. NEPAD. (2002). Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme. Chapter 2 (2.1 and 2.2). http://www.fao.org/docrep/005/y6831e/y6831e-03.htm#P442_104688. Accessed 31 Oct 2017.
  24. Peacock, W. G., Morrow, B. H., & Gladwin, H. (1997). Hurricane Andrew: Ethnicity, gender and the sociology of disaster. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  25. Peng, S., Huang, J., Sheehy, J. E., Laza, R. C., Visperas, R. M., Zhong, X., Centeno, G. S., Khush, G. S., & Cassman, K. G. (2004). Rice yields decline with higher night temperature from global warming. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 101, 9971–9975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Powers, J. (2006). Food ethics in Africa. http://conceptexcellence.blogspot.com/2006/03/food-ethics-in-africa.html. Accessed 31 Oct 2017.
  27. Sachs, J., & Warner, A. M. (1995). Natural resource abundance and economic growth. NBER working paper No. 5398. http://www.nber.org/papers/w5398. Accessed 31 Oct 2017.
  28. Scherr, S. J., & Yadav, S. (2001). Land degradation in the developing world – Issues and policy options for 2020. The unfinished agenda: Perspectives on overcoming hunger, poverty, and environmental degradation, P. Pinstrup-Andersen, & R. Pandya-Lorch (pp. 133–138). Washington, DC: International Food Policy Research Institute.Google Scholar
  29. UN. (2008). Land. www.un.org/esa/sustdev/publications/trends2008/land.pdf. Accessed 31 Oct 2017.
  30. UN. (2017). United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. World population prospects: The 2017 revision, key findings and advance tables. Working paper No. ESA/P/WP/248. New York: United Nations.Google Scholar
  31. van Niekerk, A. (2010). Ethics in agriculture: An African perspective. Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  32. Vivas, E. (2010). Food crisis: Causes, consequences and alternatives. Climate and capitalism. http://climateandcapitalism.com/2010/06/27/food-crisis-causes-consequences-and-alternatives/. Accessed 31 Oct 2017.
  33. WHES. (2016). World Hunger and Education Service. Hunger notes: Africa hunger and poverty facts. Washington, DC. http://www.worldhunger.org/africa-hunger-and-poverty-facts/. Accessed 31 Oct 2017.
  34. Women for Women International. (2010). Women in agriculture and food security. http://www.womenforwomen.org/news-women-for-women/agriculture-food-security.php. Accessed 31 Oct 2017.
  35. World Bank Group. (2017). Agricultural land (% of world land area). https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.AGRI.ZS. Accessed 31 Oct 2017.

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Politics, Philosophy and Public AffairsWashington State UniversityPullmanUSA
  2. 2.Department of Geography and Resource Studies, College of Management and Social SciencesOsun State UniversityOkukuNigeria