Encyclopedia of Food and Agricultural Ethics

2019 Edition
| Editors: David M. Kaplan

WTO GMO Dispute: Implications for the SPS Agreement

Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-024-1179-9_360




In recent decades, global flows – whether of goods, services, capital, pests, chemicals, or greenhouse gases – have expanded together with new technologies, norms, and institutions that govern these flows. Several processes tend to denationalize what had been constructed as national in the modern era – policies, markets, capital, culture, and etc. – and to establish new global powers.

The World Trade Organization (WTO), which superseded the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) in 1995, is a central node of this newly emerging global order. Established to police trade barriers for compliance with internationally agreed rules, it also sets global norms, such as standards of intellectual property and risk assessment for health and environmental issues. An agile institution, the WTO Secretariat is a relatively small bureaucracy linking hundreds of country representatives in Geneva.

While many international institutions have suffered a significant...

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The Open UniversityMilton KeynesUK
  2. 2.Centre Alexandre KoyréHistory of Science and TechnologyParisFrance