Encyclopedia of Medieval Philosophy

Living Edition
| Editors: Henrik Lagerlund

Richard Fitzralph

Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-024-1151-5_438-2

Abstract

Richard Fitzralph, d. 1360, Archbishop of Armagh, completed Sentence commentary at Oxford in 1328 and was active at Avignon until 1344. He compiled a critique of the Franciscan doctrine of usus pauper based on the theory of grace as foundation for just lordship. His De pauperie salvatoris would become very influential in late medieval antifraternalism and also influenced Wyclif’s political thought. He also was at the forefront of Avignon’s embassy to the Greek and Armenian churches, and his Summa de quaestionibus Armenorum gives a record of late medieval conceptions of the relation of Catholicism to the Orthodox traditions.

Richard Fitzralph (c. 1300–1360) called Armachanus, Archbishop of Armagh (1346–1360), studied at Oxford 1315–1328, was chancellor of the university 1332–1334, and became prominent at Avignon after refuting John XXIII’s controversial position on the beatific vision. Subsequently he served as papal representative in conferences held with the Greek and Armenian churches from 1337 to 1344, where he compiled a formulation of the differences separating the Roman from the Orthodox churches in the Summa de quaestionibus Armenorum. The Summa, for which there is no modern edition, served as an important theological document into the Counter-Reformation and provides a valuable window into fourteenth-century conceptions of the Eastern churches and their theologies. As Archbishop, Fitzralph was active in the reform of the Irish church and, in doing so, developed a careful and penetrating critique of the mendicant orders in his eight-volume De pauperie salvatoris. His critique of the mendicants was later associated with Wyclif’s thought, which detracted from his reputation in the fifteenth century, but he was counted among the most influential Oxford theologians by his contemporaries and immediate successors.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access

Bibliography

Primary Sources

  1. (1511). Summa de quaestionibus Armenorum (ed.: Sudoris, J.). Paris.Google Scholar
  2. Fitzralph, R. (1890). De pauperie salvatoris, I–IV (ed.: Poole, R.L.). In Wyclif, J., De dominio divino (pp. 257–476). London: Wyclif Society.Google Scholar
  3. Fitzralph, R. (1954). De pauperie salvatoris, V–VII (ed.: Brock, R.O.). In An edition of Richard FitzRalph’s ‘De pauperie salvatoris’, books V, VI, and VII. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Colorado, Boulder.Google Scholar
  4. Lectura in Sententias Petri Lombardi (ed.: Dunne, M.). Auctores Britannici Medii Aevi (in preparation).Google Scholar

Secondary Sources

  1. Dawson, J. D. (1983). Ralph and the fourteenth-century poverty controversies. The Journal of Ecclesiastical History, 34, 315–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Dipple, G. (1994). Uthred and the friars: Apostolic poverty and clerical dominion between Fitzralph and Wyclif. Traditio, 49, 235–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Dolan, T. (2013). The rhetoric of Fitzralph’s Defensio curatorum. Dunne and Nolan, pp. 99–102.Google Scholar
  4. Duba, W. (2013). Conversion, vision and faith in the life and works of Fitzralph. Dunne and Nolan, pp. 103–127.Google Scholar
  5. Dunne, M. (2013a). Accidents without a subject: Fitzralph’s question on the Eucharist. Dunne and Nolan, pp. 11–29.Google Scholar
  6. Dunne, M. (2013b). John Foxholes OFM Armachanus a note on his logical treatises formerly attributed to Fitzralph. Dunne and Nolan, pp. 199–203.Google Scholar
  7. Dunne, M., & Nolan, S. (2013). Richard Fitzralph his life, times and thought. Dublin: Four Courts.Google Scholar
  8. Genest, J.-F. (1989). The dissemination of manuscripts relating to English political thought in the fourteenth century. England and her neighbours, 1066–1453. London: Hambledon.Google Scholar
  9. Genest, J.-F. (1991). Contingence et revelation des futures: la Quaestio Biblica de Richard FitzRalph. In J. Jolivet, Z. Kaluza, & A. de Libera (Eds.), Lectionum varietates: homage á Paul Vignaux (pp. 199–246). Paris: Vrin.Google Scholar
  10. Hammerich, L.L. (1938). The beginning of the strife between Richard FitzRalph and the Mendicants, with an edition of his autobiographical prayer and his proposition Unusquisque. In Det. Kgl. Danske Videnskabernes Selskab, vol XXVI 3.Google Scholar
  11. Haren, M. (2013). The influence on Fitzralph of Bishop Grandisson of Exeter. Dunne and Nolan, pp. 30–55.Google Scholar
  12. Kitanov, S. (2013). Is it better for the king of England…:Richard Fitzralph and Adam Wodeham on whether beatific enjoyment is an act of the intellect or an act of the will. Dunne and Nolan, pp. 56–78.Google Scholar
  13. Lahey, S. (2013). Richard Fitzralph and John Wyclif: Untangling Armachanus from the Wycliffites. Dunne and Nolan, pp. 159–185.Google Scholar
  14. Leff, G. (1963). Richard FitzRalph commentator of the sentences: A study in theological orthodoxy. Manchester: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
  15. McAleer, G. (2013). De Vitoria on Fitzralph: an adequate assessment? Dunne and Nolan, pp. 186–198.Google Scholar
  16. Salter, H. E. (1922). The Stamford schism. English Historical Review 37, 146, 249–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Schabel, C. (2013). Richard Fitzralph on the Filioque before and after…Barlaam the Calabrian. Dunne and Nolan, pp. 128–158.Google Scholar
  18. Tachau, K. (2013). Adam Wodeham and Robert Holcot as witnesses to Fitzralph’s thought. Dunne and Nolan, pp. 79–98.Google Scholar
  19. Walsh, K. (1981). A fourteenth-century scholar and primate: Richard FitzRalph in Oxford, Avignon, and Armagh. Oxford: Clarendon.Google Scholar
  20. Walsh, K. (1985). Preaching, pastoral care, and sola scriptura in later medieval Ireland: Richard FitzRalph and the use of the bible. In K. Walsh & D. Wood (Eds.), The bible in the medieval world, SCH Subsidia (Vol. 4, pp. 251–268). Oxford: Basil, Blackwell.Google Scholar
  21. Wolfgang, B. (2013). Naturphilosophische Argumente in der Engelslehre. Misc Mediaevalia, 21(1), 468–477.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Classics and Religious StudiesUniversity of NebraskaLincolnUSA