Exposure and Toxicity of Metal and Oxide Nanoparticles to Earthworms
Exposure and toxicity are the two variables that are required to assess the risk that a substance poses to an organism or the environment. Exposure determines to which extent an organism enters in contact with a substance, while toxicity measures to which extent an organism is impaired by the substance.
The increasing use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in consumer products is leading to a new type of environmental pollution for which the knowledge related to environmental hazards and risks is very limited. Toxicity and even ecotoxicity have been examined for a range of ENMs, and a majority of the reports conclude that several ENMs have toxic properties under certain conditions. Yet, exposure conditions seem to govern the outcome of such studies which...
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