Encyclopedia of International Higher Education Systems and Institutions

Living Edition
| Editors: Pedro Nuno Teixeira (Editor-in-Chief), Jung-Cheol Shin (Editor-in-Chief)

Higher Education Systems and Institutions, Mongolia

Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-9553-1_505-1

Higher Education System Development

Mongolia is a sovereign state, located in Eastern Asia bordering with Russia and China. Covering 1,553,556 km2, Mongolia is the 18th largest country in the world by land mass and has a population of over three million people. Mongolia is one of the fastest growing emerging economies, where the higher education sector is seen as a crucial means to help accelerate sustainable economic and social development. The Mongolian higher education has experienced a remarkable expansion since its transition from planned economy to open-market economy when Mongolia became a democratic country in 1990. Between 1991 and 2017, the number of higher education institutions (HEIs) grew from 14 to 95, and gross enrollment ratio in tertiary level grew from 14.0% to 69.0% (Table 1).
Table 1

Number of public and private HEIs: selected years, 1991–2017












Total HEIs




Private HEIs Foreign HEIs Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) State-funded Training (STF) Curriculum Review Process 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. MECSS. 2017. Statistical year book education, 2016–2017. Ulaanbaatar: Ministry of Education, Culture, Science and Sports. http://www.mecss.gov.mn/data/1702/HigherSta1617ab. Accessed 20 Apr 2018.Google Scholar
  2. MECSS. 2018. Statistical report of higher education sector, 2015–2018. Ulaanbaatar: Ministry of Education, Culture, Science and Sports.Google Scholar
  3. Munkh-Erdene, Lhamsuren. 2008. Reforming state university governance: Public status and shared governance, Policy paper. Ulaanbaatar: Open Society Forum. http://pdc.ceu.hu/archive/00006324/01/Reforming_State_University_Mongolia.pdf. Accessed 10 Apr 2017.Google Scholar
  4. Orkhon, Gantogtokh. 2018. Дээд боловсролын сургалтын хөтөлбөрийн тухай ойлголтыг тодруулах нь (Clarifying the concept of higher education curriculum). Дээд боловсрол сэтгүүл (Journal of Higher Education) 1 (19): 173–186.Google Scholar
  5. Posadas, Corazon, and Byambadash Munkhbayar. 2016. Guidelines for developing financial resources for higher education institutions. Unpublished report of higher education reform project, MECSS.Google Scholar
  6. Sodnomtseren, Altantsetseg. 2002. Financing of state higher education in Mongolia: Constraints and opportunities, Policy paper. Ulaanbaatar: Central European University Center for Policy Studies.Google Scholar
  7. Sukhbaatar, Javzan. 2014. Human resource development plan for HERP. Unpublished report of higher education reform project, MECSS.Google Scholar
  8. Various annual financial reports of Mongolian HEIs, 2015–2016.Google Scholar
  9. World Bank. 2010. Tertiary education in Mongolia: Meeting the challenges of the global economy. Washington, DC: World Bank. https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/bitstream/handle/10986/19470/529250SR0WHITE0737B0Mongolia0policy.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y. Accessed 10 Apr 2017.Google Scholar

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Mongolian National Council for Education AccreditationUlaanbaatarMongolia

Section editors and affiliations

  • Rui Yang
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Policy, Administration and Social Sciences EducationThe University of Hong KongPokfulamHong Kong