Astronomy: Indian Astronomy in China
Chinese astronomy and Indian astronomy were originally independent. Both of them already had developed when Indian astronomy was introduced into China along with Buddhism. The exact date of the introduction of Buddhism into China is not known, but it can be said that Buddhism was gradually introduced at the beginning of the Later Han (Eastern Han) dynasty (AD 25–220) or so. According to my study, the earliest information on Indian astronomy reached China at the time of the Later Han.
During the Sanguo (Three Kingdoms) period (AD 220–265), some Buddhist works, where information of Indian astronomy was included, were translated into Chinese. At the time of the Tang dynasty (AD 618–907), some detailed monographs of Indian astronomy and astrology were composed in China. There were some astronomers who were well versed in both Chinese and Indian astronomy. Yixing was one of them.
It is not known whether Chinese astronomy was introduced into pre-modern India or not.
Indian Astronomy in the...
- Ōhashi, Y. (1993). Development of astronomical observation in Vedic and post-Vedic India. Indian Journal of History of Science, 28(3), 185–251.Google Scholar
- Ōhashi, Y. (1999). Historical significance of mathematical astronomy in Later-Han China. In Y. S. Kim & B. Francesca (Eds.), Current perspectives in the history of science in east Asia (pp. 259–263). Seoul, South Korea: Seoul National University Press.Google Scholar
- Ōhashi, Y. (2001). Preliminary remarks on the origin of “Mori” and “Mieri” in Chinese calendars. In K. Tatsuhiko et al. (Eds.), Proceedings of the fourth international symposium on the history of mathematics and mathematical education using Chinese characters, Maebashi, 1999 (pp. 97–102). Maebashi, Japan: Maebashi Institute of Technology.Google Scholar
- Shinjō, S. (1928). Tōyō tenmongaku-shi kenkyū (A study of the history of astronomy in the east, in Japanese). Kyoto, Japan: Kōbundō. Rpt. Kyoto: Rinsen-shoten, 1989.Google Scholar
- Yabuuti, K. (1944). Zuitō rekihō-shi no kenkyū (A study of the history of calendars during Sui and Tang dynasties, in Japanese). Tokyo, Japan: Sanseidō. Revised ed. Kyoto: Rinsen-shoten, 1989.Google Scholar
- Yabuuti, K. (1979). Researches on the Chiu-chih li – Indian astronomy under the T’ang dynasty. Acta Asiatica, 36, 7–48.Google Scholar
- Yano, M. (1979). The Chiuchih-li and the Ārdharātrika-pakṣa on the true daily motion of the moon. Indogaku-bukkyōgaku-kenkyū (Journal of Indian and Buddhist Studies), 27, 6–9.Google Scholar