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Hepatic Biomarkers in Diabetes as Modulated by Dietary Phytochemicals

  • Arpita BasuEmail author
  • Paramita BasuEmail author
  • Timothy J. LyonsEmail author
Reference work entry
Part of the Biomarkers in Disease: Methods, Discoveries and Applications book series (BDMDA)

Abstract

Both type 2 diabetes (T2D) and features of the metabolic syndrome are associated with hepatic insulin resistance, which may gradually progress to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and fibrosis. Biomarkers, including those related to glycemia, serum lipid profiles, lipid oxidation, inflammation, and levels of enzymes reflecting hepatocellular damage (e.g., aminotransferases), may reflect liver function in diabetes. New epidemiological data suggest that noninvasive imaging techniques, such as computed tomography (CT) scans, may provide better predictive biomarkers for NAFLD than circulating liver enzymes. Phytochemicals or plant-derived bioactive compounds present in foods, beverages, and herbal supplements have been shown to modulate biomarkers of liver function in clinical trials and mechanistic studies. Mediterranean diet and dietary phytochemicals, such as polyphenols derived from green tea, berries, olive oil, and resveratrol, have been shown to lower liver enzymes, liver fat content, and to improve hepatic insulin resistance and related biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation, especially in the presence of adiposity and the metabolic syndrome. Herbs, such as silymarin and those used in traditional Chinese medicine (for example, hawthorn fruit extract), have also been shown to lower hepatic enzymes and markers of oxidative stress and to increase hepatic antioxidant status in patients with NAFLD. Other emerging biomarkers, such as cytokines and microRNAs, are also being evaluated for efficacy in monitoring and predicting liver dysfunction. Thus, selected phytochemicals, especially those occurring naturally in berries and grapes, tea, olives, nuts, and legumes, when used in the context of a low-calorie diet may have a role in treating liver dysfunction. The use of herbal supplements to modulate hepatic biomarkers requires further evaluation of safety and efficacy.

Keywords

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease Hepatic insulin resistance Aminotransferase Mediterranean diet Resveratrol Green tea Silymarin 

List of Abbreviations

ALT

Alanine aminotransferase

AST

Aspartate aminotransferase

BMI

Body mass index

CBS

Cystathionine β-synthase

CHD

Coronary heart disease

Cox-2

Cyclooxygenase-2

CRP

C-reactive protein

CSE

Cystathionine γ-lyase

CT

Computed tomography

CVD

Cardiovascular disease

GGT

Gamma-glutamyl transferase

H2S

Hydrogen sulfide

HMG CoA reductase

Hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase

HOMA-IR

Homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance

HS

Hepatic steatosis

IL-2R

Interleukin-2 receptor

IL-8

Interleukin 8

Med diet

Mediterranean diet

NAFLD

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

NASH

Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis

OLETF

Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty

PGE2

Prostaglandin E2

PUFA

Polyunsaturated fatty acids

RCT

Randomized controlled trial

SREBP-1c

Sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c

SREBP-2

Sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2

T2D

Type 2 diabetes

TCM

Traditional Chinese medicine

TGF-α

Transforming growth factor alpha

TPS

Tissue-polypeptide-specific antigen

VLDL

Very low density lipoprotein

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Nutritional Sciences, 301 Human SciencesOklahoma State UniversityStillwaterUSA
  2. 2.Department of BiologyTexas Woman’s UniversityDentonUSA
  3. 3.Centre for Experimental MedicineQueen’s University of BelfastNorthern IrelandUK

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