Encyclopedia of Scientific Dating Methods

Living Edition
| Editors: W. Jack Rink, Jeroen Thompson

Dendrochronology, Volcanic Eruptions

  • Franco BiondiEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-6326-5_24-1


Tree Ring Volcanic Eruption Ring Width Wood Formation Proxy Record 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Dating of events associated with volcanism that leaves a permanent marker in tree-ring records. Such events include air temperature cooling, deposition of ash layers, lava flows, and magmatic degassing.


The geological applications of dendrochronology cover a wide range of topics, from paleoseismology (Jacoby 1997) to paleovolcanism and its effects on climate (Zielinski 2000). With specific regard to volcanic eruptions, tree-ring records have been used in multiple ways to date events associated with explosive and effusive volcanism, including magmatic degassing. Because wood formation is influenced by environmental factors (Plomion et al. 2001), tree species that are directly or indirectly impacted by volcanic eruptions can record such events in their growth layers. Datable volcanic effects on woody species range from annihilation (death dates) to rebirth (establishment dates) but also include growth changes in surviving trees (Yamaguchi 1993). Such changes can be abrupt, hence only detectable in single rings. These individual growth layers can be very small (“microrings”), down to the point of not being present (“locally absent rings”) in one or more samples collected at a site (Biondi et al. 2003). Individual tree rings that are typically not so small can show anatomical damage from freezing (“frost rings”) in response to the sudden reduction of sunlight and its associated air temperature drop, caused by volcanic dust veils (LaMarche and Hirschboeck 1984). Depending on the type of extrusive materials (tephra deposition, lava flows, emission of sulfuric gases, etc.), surviving trees can present gradual, rather than abrupt, changes over multiple consecutive years. Such departures from previous tree-ring patterns can be positive (increased growth, or “release”) or negative (decreased growth, or “suppression”). The diversity of volcanic effects on trees depends on the variety of materials that can be ejected, as well as on the location, species, size, and age of the trees, together with other site conditions, from elevation and topography to vegetation features. On one hand, such richness of potential information has generated a long tradition of tree-ring applications to volcanology. On the other hand, the difficult task of identifying what, when, and how trees were impacted by specific past volcanic events has caused multiple, heated, and prolonged scientific debates.

Historical Development

Modern dendrochronology, which is the study of past changes recorded by wood growth, is based on the rigorous application of Crossdating techniques to assign calendar dates to tree rings (Fritts and Swetnam 1989). When so defined, this branch of science was established in the western United States at the beginning of the twentieth century by Andrew E. Douglass, an astronomer at the University of Arizona in Tucson (Webb 1983; Nash 1999). Tree-ring dating is closely connected with the study of wood formation, and relevant studies, for example, on the anatomy of frost rings (Rhoads 1923), also date back about a century. On the other hand, while the hypothesis that exceptionally cold years could be caused by volcanic eruptions is found in Benjamin Franklin’s (1785) writings, the global atmospheric radiative effects of volcanic aerosols could only be tested with the advent of satellite and remote sensing technology in the 1980s (Ramanathan 1988). At about the same time, the Volcanic Explosivity Index, or VEI (Newhall and Self 1982), was introduced to describe the magnitude of past explosive eruptions in a semiquantitative manner. Impacts of extrusive eruptions on tree rings at sites located near a volcano were first described in the 1960s, but sample sizes were small (i.e., less than ten trees), ring boundaries were uncertain either because of poor sample preservation and surfacing (Druce 1966) or because of species growth patterns and anatomical features (Eggler 1967), and no crossdating was used. A notable exception was the A.D. 1064–1065 dating of Sunset Crater, Arizona (Smiley 1958), where a larger number of samples from archaeological ruins were investigated and tree-ring dates were assigned by crossdating. On the other hand, less than ten trees showed a distinct growth reduction after 1064, and nonvolcanic disturbances can cause similar effects in ring widths of the same species in this geographical area (Sheppard et al. 2005).

A major catalyst for dendro-volcanology came from the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens in the Pacific Northwest region of the USA. The blast that occurred on May 18 of that year with an estimated VEI of 5 (the maximum is 8) removed the top 400 m of the mountain and rose to 24 km into the stratosphere (Brantley and Myers 2000). It was the deadliest and most economically devastating volcanic event in United States history, exceeding a billion dollars in damage. A total of about 60 people, including a volcanologist, and more than nine million cubic meters of valuable timber were among the losses suffered over the nearly 600 km2 ravaged by the eruption (McLean and Lockridge 2000). Several studies were published shortly thereafter on tree growth responses to the eruption (Mahler and Fosberg 1983; Hinckley et al. 1984) and on dendrochronological dating of previous events (Yamaguchi 1983, 1985). The enhanced interest in past volcanic histories, and the realization of potential long-range temperature effects from volcanic dust veils, prompted an extensive study of frost rings in the wood of high-elevation bristlecone pines (LaMarche and Hirschboeck 1984). Another anatomical feature, i.e., the “light rings” caused by reduced latewood formation in conifers growing at high elevations or latitudes, was investigated for their potential connection with reduced temperatures associated with volcanic eruptions (Filion et al. 1986). Extensive networks of tree-ring sites, whose analysis was then facilitated by advances in computational power and numerical processing, became the target of sophisticated statistical methods to detect changes in tree-ring-reconstructed climatic variables that could be linked to volcanic eruptions (Lough and Fritts 1987).

Yet another method of tree-ring analysis, X-ray densitometry (Polge 1970) had come of age in those decades (Schweingruber et al. 1978), and networks of tree-ring sites sampled in the late 1970s and early 1980s were analyzed using this new technique (Schweingruber et al. 1991). Subsequent research to date has continued to employ the tools elaborated in previous years, from light rings (Szeicz 1996) to densitometry (Jones et al. 1995), expanding the number of sampled sites (D’Arrigo and Jacoby 1999) as well as the geographical (Hantemirov et al. 2004) or temporal (Salzer and Hughes 2007) range of previous studies, and applying increasingly complex numerical treatments for identifying volcanic signals in tree-ring proxy records (Breitenmoser et al. 2012). As an alternative to the exhaustive filtering and massaging of large spatiotemporal datasets, other studies in the past few decades have investigated the use of chemical markers in tree rings linked to volcanic eruptions (Pearson et al. 2009), including magmatic degassing in the absence of explosive events (Biondi and Fessenden 1999).

Basic Principles and Applications

Trees and other woody plants grow by covering themselves with a new layer of tissue every year (Larson 1994). When seen on a transverse section, such wood layers appear as concentric tree rings. Because tree growth is influenced by the environment, tree rings are then natural archives of past environmental conditions. For instance, less wood is formed near the base of a tree stem when climate conditions are less favorable, producing narrower rings (Speer 2010). If an eruption takes place, trees growing close enough to the volcano can be scorched by hot gases or covered with tephra and may either be killed or survive depending on their species, age and vigor, microsite conditions, as well as the chemistry and temperature of the gases and the thickness and coarseness of the tephra layer (Segura et al. 1994). Surviving trees typically experience abrupt suppression of radial growth (Hinckley et al. 1984), including locally absent rings (Yamaguchi and Hoblitt 1995). This immediate decline can be followed by a prolonged period of reduced radial increment (Segura et al. 1995) or by its opposite, i.e., greater than normal growth rates, often in connection with concurrent stand dynamics and resulting competitive interactions (Abrams et al. 1999).

Major explosive volcanic eruptions that inject dust and aerosols into the stratosphere are capable of causing large-scale surface cooling (Minnis et al. 1993). Distant, large-scale networks of tree-ring chronologies from temperature-limited sites can reflect those eruptions in anatomical xylem features, such as frost damage (D’Arrigo et al. 2001) or reduced latewood formation (Jacoby et al. 1999). Freezing damage to coniferous species causes the formation of deformed and collapsed xylem cells depending on the intensity of the frost, the degree of cambial activity at the time of the temperature drop, the tree species and size, and possibly other factors (Day and Peace 1934). Frost rings have been reproduced experimentally (Glerum and Farrar 1966), and their cross-sectional features are clearly distinguishable on a well-prepared wood sample at the magnification (10–50×) normally used in tree-ring studies. While crossdating among a large enough number of samples guarantees accurate dates, the year assigned to a frost ring may have some uncertainty if the injury occurs at a ring boundary, so that it could represent either a late frost in a year or an early frost in the following year. This situation is more frequent as ring widths become smaller (<0.1 mm), but using well-dated frost rings to resolve uncertain cases leads to potential bias and should be either avoided or well documented. With regard to “light rings”, the reduced cell wall thickening in latewood that causes their name also causes minimal density and can be caused either by low air temperature or by insect defoliation (Liang et al. 1997).

Measured annual growth parameters, such as ring width (Fritts 1976) or maximum latewood density (Briffa et al. 1988), are routinely used for dendroclimatic reconstructions. When wood formation is limited by air temperature, as it is usually the case for trees located at high elevations or high latitudes (D’Arrigo et al. 2006), dendrochronological parameters can reflect a volcanic cooling, thereby providing a record of past eruptions (Briffa et al. 1998). Chronologies developed from ring widths present a greater amount of time-series autocorrelation (or “persistence”) than chronologies generated from annual density peaks (called maximum latewood density, or MLD), which also tend to reflect growing season conditions rather than integrating environmental signals over multiple years (D’Arrigo et al. 1992). Therefore, it is normally assumed that the temporal lag between volcanic cooling and its incorporation in tree-ring proxy records increases going from frost rings to light rings and from maximum latewood density to ring width chronologies (D’Arrigo and Jacoby 1999).

The main application of dendrochronology to volcanology is the definition of impacts on ecosystems and on human societies, either current, past, or long lost. Besides providing information on ecological processes in forests, tree-ring records of volcanic eruptions contribute to estimating the past frequency of destructive events. This numerical datum can then improve the definition of potential risks, especially with regard to explosive phenomena occurring at short intervals from one another (Yamaguchi 1985). At the same time, because of possible global impacts of volcanoes on climate (Robock and Mao 1995) and biogeochemical cycles (Krakauer and Randerson 2003), well-dated records of past eruptions are needed to improve the accuracy of models used to generate future scenarios linked to anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases (Ramanathan 1988). As any other dating tool, tree-ring records of volcanic eruptions can alter historical interpretations simply by changing the order of events. While dates are not by themselves reason for cause-and-effect relationships, they are able to negate theoretical ones as no effect can precede its hypothesized cause.

Current Controversies and Knowledge Gaps

Major volcanic eruptions have been dated using other types of records, from dust layers and chemical properties in ice cores (Larsen et al. 2008) to archaeological and written sources (Stothers 1999). Not all records agree, and in particular, dates assigned to some major eruptions using geochemical markers in Greenland ice cores (Vinther et al. 2006) are currently in disagreement with tree-ring records (Baillie 2010). A particularly important event is the Minoan eruption of Thera, an island in the Aegean Sea now called Santorini, which took place in the mid-second century BC. The date of this volcanic time marker is of critical importance for the stratigraphic and archaeological synchronization of ancient Eastern Mediterranean societies, the cradle of western culture. The eruption, which left a caldera and ash deposits up to hundreds of meters in size, has been linked with the collapse of the Minoan civilization on the island of Crete, 110 km to the south, possibly spurred by gigantic tsunamis. The controversy has lasted for decades, with historical/archaeological dates centered in 1550–1500 BC (Wiener 2009), tree-ring records pointing to 1629–1627 BC (Baillie 2010), ice-core geochemistry focused on 1642–1641 BC (Vinther et al. 2006), and radiocarbon dates spread over 1683–1611 BC (Manning et al. 2006). Each of these sources of evidence has strengths and weaknesses. As an example, radiocarbon dating of an olive branch from the eruption site provided a date range of 1627–1600 BC (Friedrich et al. 2006), but it is difficult to determine if the sample was dead or alive at the time of the eruption (Wiener 2010), and wood anatomical features make any ring analysis problematic for this species (Cherubini et al. 2013).

The chemical signature of volcanic eruptions has been proposed as a possible tool for testing the accuracy of tree-ring dates assigned to individual events (Pearson et al. 2005). Because elemental concentrations can vary considerably in the same tree both around the stem and at various heights in the trunk (Watt et al. 2007), clear evidence needs to be presented that specific chemical signals are replicable across samples from the same tree as well as from different trees of the same species and site (Kirchner et al. 2008). When crossdated ring sequences are combined with localized information on geochemical variables, a high degree of accuracy and confidence can be placed in the dating (Sheppard et al. 2008). This, for instance, was the case with regard to the onset of magmatic degassing in forest stands of the Sierra Nevada, which produced abrupt changes in crossdated ring-width sequences (Biondi and Fessenden 1999) and in their radiocarbon concentrations (Cook et al. 2001).

A number of confounding factors hamper the use of proxy records for dating volcanic eruptions. Several of these factors can be categorized as false positives or false negatives (Cleland 2002). Considering anatomical markers in tree rings, not all of them are related to major volcanic eruptions (false positives), and known major volcanic eruptions took place without producing such markers (false negatives). In addition, not all cold summers over a region are related to volcanic events, and not all volcanic years produce a cold summer at the majority of sampled sites in a tree-ring network (D’Arrigo et al. 2013). Depending on the prevailing climate regime and ecological requirements of a species, climate-driven responses to major eruptions can even favor tree growth rather than depressing it. Such inverse response was proposed for Thera because the potentially cooler summers generated by the dust veil would have reduced evapotranspiration, resulting in 2–3 years of abnormally high growth in woody species adapted to the normally dry Mediterranean conditions (Kuniholm et al. 1996). These hypothetical responses, albeit reasonable, require further testing, which is best attained using detailed ecophysiological and anatomical studies at sub-monthly time scales (e.g., Rossi et al. 2013). Finally, when evaluating unusual episodes within a time series, it is best to employ a quantitative approach, such as ranking episode features (duration, magnitude, peak) according to predefined numerical criteria (e.g., Biondi et al. 2008).

An additional wrinkle in the protracted debate over tree-ring reconstructions of volcanic eruptions has recently emerged. Climate modelers have tried to reconcile their simulations of regional and global climate impacts from volcanic eruptions by postulating that tree-ring chronologies for northern latitudes or from high elevations are all consistently missing, and in more than one occasion, a year of growth (Mann et al. 2012). The ensuing vigorous responses (Anchukaitis et al. 2012; D’Arrigo et al. 2013; Esper et al. 2013) have concentrated on choices made when modeling tree-ring formation and on correlations with instrumental or proxy records, showing a general disruption of these statistical relationships when tree-ring chronologies are shifted by one or more years. The essential question underlying the debate is the likelihood that collections of tree-ring samples from a single site, or even from multiple sites in a region, would fail to include a year’s growth. The frequency of locally absent rings increases in semiarid environments as a response to drought, but existing tree-ring collections pooled by latitude, species, or elevation include a percentage of “missing” rings that does not exceed 10 % (St. George et al. 2013). A number of other issues have been raised, starting from how evidence deteriorates going further and further back into the past. For relatively recent events, such as the 1815 explosion of the Tambora volcano (Stothers 1984), there is no chance of a universally missing ring given the large number of available proxy and instrumental records. For earlier eruptions, on the other hand, even their dates become less reliable as temporal separation increases (Plummer et al. 2012).

Historical archives and environmental records of past events are notoriously open to multiple interpretations, but so are model outputs and their underlying assumptions. From a tree-ring perspective, not all is known about the environmental conditions required for, and the biological mechanisms leading to, wood formation in areas where long proxy dendroclimatic records have been developed. Anatomical and ecophysiological studies have the potential to uncover such mechanisms without complex numerical analyses (Fonti et al. 2010; Rossi et al. 2012). On the other hand, the impossibility of experimental testing on past events (Biondi 2013), when combined with lack of self-criticism or doubt, could maintain the striking tendency to robust bragging that has become a distinguishing trait of high-profile articles on volcano-climate-proxy records connections.


Dendrochronological studies of volcanic eruptions employ a variety of techniques, from anatomical to statistical, for detecting the signals left by past events in tree-ring records. When large datasets composed of multiple sites and species are independently analyzed, the resulting tree-ring dates assigned to past events are more reliable than those derived from other proxy records or from modeling exercises. Dendrochronological dates are exact when sufficient sample replication exists, but the correct interpretation of environmental signals, including volcanic ones, that are embedded in wood anatomical markers and growth patterns requires careful consideration of alternative, competing hypotheses.



  1. Abrams, M. D., Copenheaver, C. A., Terazawa, K., Umeki, K., Takiya, M., and Akashi, N., 1999. A 370-year dendroecological history of an old-growth Abies-Acer-Quercus forest in Hokkaido, northern Japan. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 29, 1891–1899.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anchukaitis, K. J., Breitenmoser, P., Briffa, K. R., Buchwal, A., Büntgen, U., Cook, E. R., D’Arrigo, R. D., Esper, J., Evans, M. N., Frank, D. C., Grudd, H., Gunnarson, B. E., Hughes, M. K., Kirdyanov, A. V., Körner, C., Krusic, P. J., Luckman, B. H., Melvin, T. M., Salzer, M. W., Shashkin, A. V., Timmreck, C., Vaganov, E. A., and Wilson, R. J. S., 2012. Tree rings and volcanic cooling. Nature Geoscience, 5, 836–837.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baillie, M. G. L., 2010. Volcanoes, ice-cores and tree-rings: one story or two? Antiquity, 84, 202–215.Google Scholar
  4. Biondi, F., 2013. The fourth dimension of interdisciplinary modeling. Journal of Contemporary Water Resources Education, 152, 42–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Biondi, F., and Fessenden, J. E., 1999. Response of lodgepole pine growth to CO2 degassing at Mammoth Mountain, California. Ecology, 80, 2420–2426.Google Scholar
  6. Biondi, F., Galindo Estrada, I., Elizalde Torres, A., and Gavilanes Ruiz, J. C., 2003. Tree growth response to the 1913 eruption of Volcán de Fuego de Colima, Mexico. Quaternary Research, 59(3), 293–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Biondi, F., Kozubowski, T. J., Panorska, A. K., and Saito, L., 2008. A new stochastic model of episode peak and duration for eco-hydro-climatic applications. Ecological Modelling, 211, 383–395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brantley, S. R., and Myers, B., 2000. Mount St. Helens – From the 1980 Eruption to 2000. Vancouver, WA: United States Geological Survey, 2 p.Google Scholar
  9. Breitenmoser, P., Beer, J., Brönnimann, S., Frank, D., Steinhilber, F., and Wanner, H., 2012. Solar and volcanic fingerprints in tree-ring chronologies over the past 2000 years. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 313–314, 127–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Briffa, K. R., Jones, P. D., and Schweingruber, F. H., 1988. Summer temperature patterns over Europe: a reconstruction from 1750 A.D. based on maximum latewood density indices of conifers. Quaternary Research, 30(1), 36–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Briffa, K. R., Jones, P. D., Schweingruber, F. H., and Osborn, T. J., 1998. Influence of volcanic eruptions on northern Hemisphere summer temperature over the past 600 years. Nature, 393, 450–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cherubini, P., Humbel, T., Beeckman, H., Gärtner, H., Mannes, D., Pearson, C. L., Schoch, W., Tognetti, R., and Lev-Yadun, S., 2013. Olive tree-ring problematic dating: a comparative analysis on Santorini (Greece). PLoS ONE, 8(1), e54730 (54735 pages).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cleland, C. E., 2002. Methodological and epistemic differences between historical science and experimental science. Philosophy of Science, 69, 474–496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cook, A. C., Hainsworth, L. J., Sorey, M. L., Evans, W. C., and Southon, J. R., 2001. Radiocarbon studies of plant leaves and tree rings from Mammoth Mountain, CA: a long-term record of magmatic CO2 release. Chemical Geology, 177, 117–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. D’Arrigo, R. D., Wilson, R. J. S., and Jacoby, G. C., 2006. On the long-term context for late twentieth century warming. Journal of Geophysical Research, 111, 1–12, D03103, doi:03110.01029/02005JD006352.Google Scholar
  16. D’Arrigo, R. D., and Jacoby, G. C., 1999. Northern north American tree-ring evidence for regional temperature changes after major volcanic events. Climatic Change, 41, 1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. D’Arrigo, R. D., Free, R. M., and Jacoby, G. C., 1992. Tree-ring width and maximum latewood density at the North American tree line: parameters of climatic change. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 22(9), 1290–1296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. D’Arrigo, R., Frank, D., Jacoby, G., and Pederson, N., 2001. Spatial response to major volcanic events in or about AD 536, 934 and 1258: frost rings and other dendrochronological evidence from Mongolia and northern Siberia: comment on R. B. Stothers, ‘Volcanic dry fogs, climate cooling, and plague pandemics in Europe and the middle east’ (Climatic Change, 42, 1999). Climatic Change, 49(1–2), 239–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. D’Arrigo, R., Wilson, R., and Anchukaitis, K. J., 2013. Volcanic cooling signal in tree ring temperature records for the past millennium. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 118(16), 9000–9010.Google Scholar
  20. Day, W. R., and Peace, T. R., 1934. The experimental production and the diagnosis of frost injury on forest trees. Oxford Forestry Memoirs, 16, 1–60.Google Scholar
  21. Druce, A. P., 1966. Tree-ring dating of recent volcanic ash and lapilli, Mt Egmont. New Zealand Journal of Botany, 4(1), 3–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Eggler, W. A., 1967. Influence of volcanic eruptions on xylem growth patterns. Ecology, 48(4), 644–647.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Esper, J., Büntgen, U., Luterbacher, J., and Krusic, P. J., 2013. Testing the hypothesis of post-volcanic missing rings in temperature sensitive dendrochronological data. Dendrochronologia, 31(3), 216–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Filion, L., Payette, S., Gauthier, L., and Boutin, Y., 1986. Light rings in subarctic conifers as a dendrochronological tool. Quaternary Research, 26, 272–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Fonti, P., von Arx, G., García-González, I., Eilmann, B., Sass-Klaassen, U., Gärtner, H., and Eckstein, D., 2010. Studying global change through investigation of the plastic responses of xylem anatomy in tree rings. New Phytologist, 185, 42–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Franklin, B., 1785. Meteorological imaginations and conjectures. In Sparks, J. (ed.), The Works of Benjamin Franklin. Boston, MA: Charles Tappan, pp. 455–457.Google Scholar
  27. Friedrich, W. L., Kromer, B., Friedrich, M., Heinemeier, J., Pfeiffer, T., and Talamo, S., 2006. Santorini eruption radiocarbon dated to 1627–1600 B.C. Science, 312(5773), 548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Fritts, H. C., 1976. Tree Rings and Climate. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  29. Fritts, H. C., and Swetnam, T. W., 1989. Dendroecology: a tool for evaluating variations in past and present forest environments. In Begon, M., Fitter, A. H., Ford, E. D., and MacFadyen, A. (eds.), Advances in Ecological Research. New York: Academic Press, pp. 111–188.Google Scholar
  30. Glerum, C., and Farrar, J. L., 1966. Frost ring formation in the stems of some coniferous species. Canadian Journal of Botany, 44(7), 879–886.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hantemirov, R. M., Gorlanova, L. A., and Shiyatov, S. G., 2004. Extreme temperature events in summer in northwest Siberia since AD 742 inferred from tree rings. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 209(1–4), 155–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hinckley, T. M., Imoto, H., Lee, K., Lacker, S., Morikawa, Y., Vogt, K. A., Grier, C. C., Keyes, M. R., Teskey, R. O., and Seymour, V. A., 1984. Impact of tephra deposition on growth in conifers: the year of the eruption. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 14, 731–739.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Jacoby, G. C., 1997. Application of tree ring analysis to paleoseismology. Reviews of Geophysics, 35(2), 109–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Jacoby, G. C., Workman, K. W., and D’Arrigo, R. D., 1999. Laki eruption of 1783, tree rings, and disaster for northwest Alaska Inuit. Quaternary Science Reviews, 18, 1365–1371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Jones, P. D., Briffa, K. R., and Schweingruber, F. H., 1995. Tree-ring evidence of the widespread effects of explosive volcanic eruptions. Geophysical Research Letters, 22(11), 1333–1336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kirchner, P., Biondi, F., Edwards, R., and McConnell, J. R., 2008. Variability of trace metal concentrations in Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi) tree rings from the Tahoe Basin, California, USA. Journal of Forest Research, 13(6), 347–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Krakauer, N. Y., and Randerson J. T., 2003. Do volcanic eruptions enhance or diminish net primary production? Evidence from tree rings. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 17(4), 1118, article 1129 (1111 pp).Google Scholar
  38. Kuniholm, P. I., Kromer, B., Manning, S. W., Newton, M., Latini, C. E., and Bruce, M. J., 1996. Anatolian tree rings and the absolute chronology of the eastern Mediterranean, 2220–718 B.C. Nature, 381, 780–783.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. LaMarche, V. C., Jr., and Hirschboeck, K. K., 1984. Frost rings in trees as records of major volcanic eruptions. Nature, 307(5946), 121–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Larsen, L. B., Vinther, B. M., Briffa, K. R., Melvin, T. M., Clausen, H. B., Jones, P. D., Siggaard-Andersen, M. -L., Hammer, C. U., Eronen, M., Grudd, H., Gunnarson, B. E., Hantemirov, R. M., Naurzbaev, M. M., and Nicolussi, K., 2008. New ice core evidence for a volcanic cause of the A.D. 536 dust veil. Geophysical Research Letters, 35, article L04708 (04705 pp).Google Scholar
  41. Larson, P. R., 1994. The Vascular Cambium: Development and Structure. Berlin: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Liang, C., Filion, L., and Cournoyer, L., 1997. Wood structure of biotically and climatically induced light rings in eastern larch (Larix laricina). Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 27(10), 1538–1547.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Lough, J. M., and Fritts, H. C., 1987. An assessment of the possible effects of volcanic eruptions on North American climate using tree-ring data, 1602 to 1900 A.D. Climatic Change, 10, 219–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Mahler, R. L., and Fosberg, M. A., 1983. The influence of Mount St. Helens volcanic ash on plant growth and nutrient uptake. Soil Science, 135, 197–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Mann, M. E., Fuentes, J. D., and Rutherford, S., 2012. Underestimation of volcanic cooling in tree-ring-based reconstructions of hemispheric temperatures. Nature Geoscience, 5, 202–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Manning, S. W., Ramsey, C. B., Kutschera, W., Higham, T., Kromer, B., Steier, P., and Wild, E. M., 2006. Chronology for the Aegean Late Bronze Age 1700–1400 B.C. Science, 312(5773), 565–569.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. McLean, S., and Lockridge, P., 2000. A Teachers Guide to Stratovolcanoes of the World. Boulder, CO: National Geophysical Data Center, 64 p.Google Scholar
  48. Minnis, P., Harrison, E. F., Stowe, L. L., Gibson, G. G., Denn, F. M., Doelling, D. R., and Smith, W. L., 1993. Radiative climate forcing by the Mount Pinatubo eruption. Science, 259(5100), 1411–1415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Nash, S. E., 1999. Time, Trees, and Prehistory: Tree-Ring Dating and the Development of North American Archaeology, 1914–1950. Salt Lake City, UT: The University of Utah Press.Google Scholar
  50. Newhall, C. G., and Self, S., 1982. The volcanic explosivity index (VEI) an estimate of explosive magnitude for historical volcanism. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 87(C2), 1231–1238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Pearson, C. L., Manning, S. W., Coleman, M., and Jarvis, K., 2005. Can tree-ring chemistry reveal absolute dates for past volcanic eruptions? Journal of Archaeological Science, 32, 1265–1274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Pearson, C. L., Dale, D. S., Brewer, P. W., Kuniholm, P. I., Lipton, J., and Manning, S. W., 2009. Dendrochemical analysis of a tree-ring growth anomaly associated with the Late Bronze Age eruption of Thera. Journal of Archaeological Science, 36, 1206–1214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Plomion, C., Leprovost, G., and Stokes, A., 2001. Wood formation in trees. Plant Physiology, 127(4), 1513–1523.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Plummer, C. T., Curran, M. A. J., van Ommen, T. D., Rasmussen, S. O., Moy, A. D., Vance, T. R., Clausen, H. B., Vinther, B. M., and Mayewski, P. A., 2012. An independently dated 2000-yr volcanic record from Law Dome, East Antarctica, including a new perspective on the dating of the 1450s CE eruption of Kuwae, Vanuatu. Climate of the Past, 8(6), 1929–1940.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Polge, H., 1970. The use of X-ray densitometric methods in dendrochronology. Tree-Ring Bulletin, 30(1–4), 1–10.Google Scholar
  56. Ramanathan, V., 1988. The greenhouse theory of climate change: a test by an inadvertent global experiment. Science, 240(4850), 293–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Rhoads, A. S., 1923. The Formation and Pathological Anatomy of Frost Rings in Conifers Injured by Late Frosts. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture,15 p.Google Scholar
  58. Robock, A., and Mao, J., 1995. The volcanic signal in surface temperature observations. Journal of Climate, 8(5), 1086–1103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Rossi, S., Morin, H., and Deslauriers, A., 2012. Causes and correlations in cambium phenology: towards an integrated framework of xylogenesis. Journal of Experimental Botany, 63, 2117–2126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Rossi, S., Anfodillo, T., Čufar, K., Cuny, H. E., Deslauriers, A., Fonti, P., Frank, D., Gričar, J., Gruber, A., King, G. M., Krause, C., Morin, H., Oberhuber, W., Prislan, P., and Rathgeber, C. B. K., 2013. A meta-analysis of cambium phenology and growth: linear and non-linear patterns in conifers of the northern hemisphere. Annals of Botany, 112(9), 1911–1920.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Salzer, M. W., and Hughes, M. K., 2007. Bristlecone pine tree rings and volcanic eruptions over the last 5000 yr. Quaternary Research, 67, 57–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Schweingruber, F. H., Fritts, H. C., Bräker, O. U., Drew, L. G., and Schaer, E., 1978. The X-ray technique as applied to dendroclimatology. Tree-Ring Bulletin, 38, 61–91.Google Scholar
  63. Schweingruber, F. H., Briffa, K. R., and Jones, P. D., 1991. Yearly maps of summer temperatures in Western Europe from A.D. 1750 to 1975 and Western North America from 1600 to 1982. Vegetatio, 92(1), 5–71.Google Scholar
  64. Segura, G., Brubaker, L. B., Franklin, J. F., Hinckley, T. M., Maguire, D. A., and Wright, G., 1994. Recent mortality and decline in mature Abies amabilis: the interaction between site factors and tephra deposition from Mount St. Helens. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 24, 1112–1122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Segura, G., Hinckley, T. M., and Oliver, C. D., 1995. Stem growth responses of declining mature Abies amabilis trees after tephra deposition from Mount St. Helens. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 25, 1493–1502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Sheppard, P. R., May, E. M., Ort, M. H., Anderson, K. C., and Elson, M. D., 2005. Dendrochronological responses to the 24 October 1992 tornado at Sunset Crater, northern Arizona. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 35(12), 2911–2919.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Sheppard, P. R., Ort, M. H., Anderson, K. C., Elson, M. D., Vázquez-selem, L., Clemens, A. W., Little, N. C., and Speakman, R. J., 2008. Multiple dendrochronological signals indicate the Eruption of ParíCutin Volcano, Michoacán, Mexico. Tree-Ring Research, 64(2), 97–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Smiley, T. L., 1958. The geology and dating of Sunset Crater, Flagstaff, Arizona. In Anderson, R. Y., and Harshberger, J. W. (eds.), Guidebook of the Black Mesa Basin, Northeastern Arizona. Socorro, NM: New Mexico Geological Society, pp. 186–190.Google Scholar
  69. Speer, J. H., 2010. Fundamentals of Tree-Ring Research. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press.Google Scholar
  70. St. George, S., Ault, T. R., and Torbenson, M. C. A., 2013. The rarity of absent growth rings in northern Hemisphere forests outside the American Southwest. Geophysical Research Letters, 40(14), 3727–3731.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Stothers, R. B., 1984. The great Tambora eruption in 1815 and its aftermath. Science, 224(4654), 1191–1198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Stothers, R., 1999. Volcanic dry fogs, climate cooling, and plague pandemics in Europe and the Middle East. Climatic Change, 42(4), 713–723.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Szeicz, J. M., 1996. White spruce light rings in Northwestern Canada. Arctic and Alpine Research, 28(2), 184–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Vinther, B. M., Clausen, H. B., Johnsen, S. J., Rasmussen, S. O., Andersen, K. K., Buchardt, S. L., Dahl-Jensen, D., Seierstad, I. K., Siggaard-Andersen, M. L., Steffensen, J. P., Svensson, A., Olsen, J., and Heinemeier, J., 2006. A synchronized dating of three Greenland ice cores throughout the Holocene. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 111(D13), D13102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Watt, S. F. L., Pyle, D. M., Mather, T. A., Day, J. A., and Aiuppa, A., 2007. The use of tree-rings and foliage as an archive of volcanogenic cation deposition. Environmental Pollution, 148, 48–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Webb, G. E., 1983. Tree Rings and Telescopes: The Scientific Career of A.E. Douglass. Tucson, AZ: The University of Arizona Press.Google Scholar
  77. Wiener, M. H., 2009. The state of the debate about the date of the Theran eruption. In Warburton, D. A. (ed.), Time’s Up! Dating the Minoan eruption of Santorini. Århus, Denmark: The Danish Institute at Athens, pp. 197–206.Google Scholar
  78. Wiener, M. H., 2010. A point in time. In Krzyszkowska, O. (ed.), Cretan Offerings: Studies in Honour of Peter Warren. London: British School at Athens. British School at Athens Studies, Vol. 18, pp. 367–394.Google Scholar
  79. Yamaguchi, D. K., 1983. New tree-ring dates for recent eruptions of Mount St. Helens. Quaternary Research, 20, 246–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Yamaguchi, D. K., 1985. Tree-ring evidence for a two-year interval between recent prehistoric explosive eruptions of Mount St. Helens. Geology, 13, 554–557.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Yamaguchi, D. K., 1993. Old-growth forest development after Mount St Helens’ 1480 eruption. National Geographic Research & Exploration, 9(3), 294–325.Google Scholar
  82. Yamaguchi, D. K., and Hoblitt, R. P., 1995. Tree-ring dating of pre-1980 volcanic flowage deposits at Mount St. Helens, Washington. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 107(9), 1077–1093.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Zielinski, G. A., 2000. Use of paleo-records in determining variability within the volcanism–climate system. Quaternary Science Reviews, 19(1–5), 417–438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.DendroLabUniversity of NevadaRenoUSA