Prenucleation clusters are thermodynamically stable associates of atoms, ions, or molecules forming in solution, approximately 1–3 nm in size on average. They are solutes themselves and form based upon dynamic chemical equilibrium in undersaturated as well as supersaturated (metastable) solution states, playing a key role during nucleation of a second phase from the latter.
How crystallization may be controlled is an important question, since many processes and applications depend on the control of crystal polymorphism, morphology, size, and other crystal characteristics. However, today, the design of bottom-up approaches to tailor-made crystalline materials is still widely settled in the realm of trial and error. In order to improve these empirical approaches, (nano)technology depends on a molecular understanding of the underlying processes [1...
KeywordsCalcium Carbonate Calcium Oxalate Critical Nucleus Stable Cluster Classical Nucleation Theory
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