Chocolate: Ethical Dimensions
All you need is love. But a little chocolate now and then doesn’t hurt.
Lucy Van Pelt
Like many human foods that require some processing, it is hard to know what was the mental process that led some Native Americans in what is now called Central America to convert the seeds inside a cacao pod to a desirable drink some 3,500 years ago. Somehow it happened, and chocolate became a thread that can be followed through the rise and fall of empires, the expansion and decline of corporations, and the shifts in dominant food regimes from nation-states to corporate producers to food activists. Like many desirable substances, chocolate has been the focus of ethical and moral questions for at least the past millennium. At different points in time and at different places, chocolate has implicated all of the ethical issues of justice and rights, autonomy and consent, care and harm, and sovereignty and egalitarianism. This entry will provide an overview of the various ethical issues that...
KeywordsFair Trade Cocoa Butter Child Labor Cocoa Bean Food Sovereignty
- Afoakwa, E. O. (2008). Cocoa and chocolate consumption- Are there aphrodisiac and other benefits for human health? South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 21(3), 107–113.Google Scholar
- Afrane, G., & Ntiamoah, A. (2011). Use of pesticides in the cocoa industry and their impact on the environment and the food chain. In M. Stoytcheva (Ed.), Pesticides in the modern world – Risks and benefits. InTechWeb. Org Rijeka Croatia (1st ed., pp. 51–68).Google Scholar
- Austin, G. (2005). Labour, land and capital in Ghana: From slavery to free labour in Asante, 1807–1956. Rochester: University of Rochester Press.Google Scholar
- Berlan, A. (2008). Making or marketing a difference? An anthropological examination of the marketing of fair trade cocoa from Ghana. Hidden hands in the market: Ethnographies of fair trade, ethical consumption, and corporate social responsibility research in economic anthropology, Emerald Insight Bingley UK (Vol. 28, pp. 171–194).Google Scholar
- Boyle, C. (2009, July 22). Fairtrade chocolate sales set to treble as Cadbury’s Dairy Milk carries ethical logo. The Times.Google Scholar
- Craft, M. A. Ethics, chocolate and beer. http://ala-apa.org/newsletter/2009/05/13/ethics-chocolate-and-beer/. This article is from the May 2009 issue.
- Davies, I. A. (2010). Who to work with: Ethical dilemmas at day/divine chocolate – 2010 – iuc-edu.eu Baines, fill and page marketing second edition chapter 19. http://www.iuc-edu.eu/group/sem1_L1/2012%20IFT%20Marketing/Divine%20Chocolate%20Ethics.doc
- Desideri, G., Kwik-Uribe, C., Grassi, D., Necozione, S., Ghiadoni, L., Mastroiacovo, D., Raffaele, A., Ferri, L., Bocale, R., Lechiara, M.C., Marini, C., & Ferri, C. (2012). Benefits in cognitive function, blood pressure, and insulin resistance through cocoa flavanol consumption in elderly subjects with mild cognitive impairment: The Cocoa, Cognition, and Aging (CoCoA) study. Hypertension. http://hyper.ahajournals.org/content/early/2012/08/14/HYPERTENSIONAHA.112.193060. Published online 14 Aug 2012.
- Ekanade, O. (1991). The nature of soil properties under mature forest and plantations of fruiting and exotic trees in the tropical rain forest fringes of SW Nigeria. Journal of World Forest Resource Management, 5(2).Google Scholar
- FAO. (2013). http://faostat.fao.org/site/339/default.aspx
- Federation of Cocoa Commerce. (n.d.). An overview of cocoa production in Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana. http://www.cocoafederation.com/education/produce.jsp
- Gray, N. (2012). Flavanol rich chocolate could boost brain performance, say researchers. http://www.nutraingredients.com/Research/Flavanol-rich-chocolate-could-boost-brain-performance-say-researchers
- Goodman, D., Sorj, B., & Wilkinson, J. (1987). From farming to biotechnology: A theory of agro-industrial development. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
- Hecht, S. B., & Cockburn, A. (1991). The fate of the forest: Developers, destroyers, and defenders of the amazon. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
- Holmyard, N. (2007). Chocolate with a conscience: Consumer interest in organic and fairtrade has driven growth. But how much progress has been made in addressing ethical issues? Grocer-London: WM Reed Publishing Ltd. http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Chocolate+with+a+conscience%3A+consumer+interest+in+organic+and…-a0170233890.
- IBISWorld. Global candy & chocolate manufacturing: Market research report. http://www.ibisworld.com/industry/global/global-candy-chocolate-manufacturing.html?partnerid=prweb
- ICCO. (n.d.). http://www.cocoafederation.com/education/produce.jsp
- International Labor Organization. (2004). Child labour: A textbook for university students. Geneva: International Labour Organization.Google Scholar
- Johnston, I. (2013). Mars, Nestle, Hershey accused of chocolate price-fixing conspiracy in Canada. http://worldnews.nbcnews.com/_news/2013/06/07/18820597-mars-nestle-hershey-accused-of-chocolate-price-fixing-conspiracy-in-canada?lite
- Khamis, S. (2011). A case study in compromise: The Green Blacks brand of ethical chocolate. Australasian Journal of Popular Culture, 1(1), 16, pp. 19–32(14).Google Scholar
- Khamis, S. (2012). A case study in compromise: The Green & Black’s brand of ethical chocolate. Macquarie University Research Online. minerva.mq.edu.auGoogle Scholar
- LeClair, M. S. (2000). International commodity markets and the role of cartels. Armonk: M. E. Sharpe.Google Scholar
- Morbey, T. (1995). The cacao tree - a high-yield crop which protects the environment. Lisbon: Comunicacoes Instituto de Investigacao Cientifica Tropical.Google Scholar
- Off, C. (2006). Bitter chocolate: Investigating the dark side of the world’s most seductive sweet. Toronto: Random House.Google Scholar
- Paoletti, R., Poli, A., Conti, A., & Visioli, F. (2012). Chocolate and health. Milan: Springer.Google Scholar
- Raghavan, S., & Chatterjee, S. (2001). Slaves feed world’s taste for chocolate. Knight Ridder News Service. Google Scholar
- Robertson, E. (2009). Chocolate, women and empire: A social and cultural history. history.ac.ukGoogle Scholar
- Ryan, Ó. (2011). Chocolate nations: Living and dying for cocoa in West Africa. London: Zed Books. ISBN 978-1-84813-005-0.Google Scholar
- Satre, L. J. (2005). Chocolate on trial: Slavery, politics, and the ethics of business. Athens: Ohio University Press.Google Scholar
- The Hershey Company. Hershey’s history. http://www.thehersheycompany.com/about-hershey/our-story/hersheys-history.aspx
- USDA ERS. (2012). Sugar and sweeteners – Policy. http://www.ers.usda.gov/topics/crops/sugar-sweeteners/policy.aspx#.UdNHQtj-qf0.
- Wang, F., Liu, Y., Shan, L., Jin, Q., Wang, X., & Li, L. (2010). Blooming in cocoa butter substitutes based compound chocolate: Investigations on composition, morphology and melting behavior. Journal of American Oil Chemistry Society, 87, 1137–1143. doi:10.1007/s11746-010-1604-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Watson, R., Preedy, V. R., & Zibadi, S. (2012). Chocolate in health and nutrition. New York: Humana Press.Google Scholar
- Wikipedia. (2013). Cocoa production in Ivory Coast. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cocoa_production_in_Ivory_Coast
- Woerle, A. (2012). Marketing meets ethics –with the sample of an Austrian chocolate factory. The Romanian Economic Journal, 15(46), 187.Google Scholar