Since transgenic crops first took root, they have been embroiled in numerous controversies from questions about their safety to the future of the food system. Today, transgenic crops make up a considerable portion of the planted areas of crops such as soy, corn, cotton, and canola, but find very little adoption in other sectors. Farmer adoption of transgenic soy happened so quickly that by some measures it is often described as the most rapidly adopted agricultural technology in human history. While some agricultural sectors have benefited from transgenic crop adoption, they remain much maligned in wider discussions about agricultural sustainability. Before describing these apprehensions toward transgenic crops, this section describes what transgenic crops are and how they are made.
The term transgenic is used as an adjective to describe an organism where genes have been moved from one...
KeywordsGenetically Modify Ecological Risk Assessment Transgenic Crop Transgenic Seed Genetically Modify Food
- Altieri, M. (2000). The ecological impacts of transgenic crops on agroecosystem health. Ecosystem Health, 6, 13–23.Google Scholar
- Busch, L., Lacy, W., Burkhart, J., & Lacy, L. (1991). Plants, power, and profit: Social, economic, and ethical consequences of the new biotechnologies. Chicago: Blackwells.Google Scholar
- Fowler, C., & Mooney, P. (1990). Shattering: Food, politics, and the loss of genetic diversity. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.Google Scholar
- Kloppenburg, J. (2004). First the seed: The political economy of plant biotechnology. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.Google Scholar
- Krimsky, S., & Plough, A. (1988). Environmental hazards: Communicating risks as a social process. Dover: Auburn House Publishing.Google Scholar
- Letourneau, D., & Burrows, B. (Eds.). (2002). Genetically engineered organisms: Assessing the environmental and human health effects. New York: CRC Press.Google Scholar
- National Research Council. (2002). Environmental effects of transgenic plants: The scope and adequacy of regulation. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences.Google Scholar