Interpenetrating Polymer Networks

Reference work entry

Abstract

An interpenetrating polymer network, IPN, can be defined as a combination of two polymers in network form, at least one of which is synthesized and/or cross-linked in the immediate presence of the other. This chapter presents the synthesis, morphology, and properties of IPNs made in different ways emphasizing bulk syntheses and latex syntheses. Some of the most interesting materials have a glassy polymer and a rubbery polymer combined. Usually, polymer I is synthesized, followed by polymer 2. If the reactions are noninterfering, both monomers can be mixed with their respective cross-linkers and initiators and polymerized simultaneously. Applications of IPN technology are broad, including sound and vibration damping, biomedical applications, coatings, adhesives, and golf ball components.

The morphology of IPNs has been widely investigated via electron microscopy and dynamical mechanical spectroscopy. Many IPNs have dual-phase continuity, with phase domain sizes of the order of several hundred angstroms. For sound and vibration damping over broad temperature ranges, the two polymers are mixed in different extents in different parts of the material, usually in the submicron range.

As examples of the biomedical materials, films to cover serious skin burns are used because of their capability of transporting moisture away from the burn site by diffusion while simultaneously transporting in oxygen to help keep the still living tissue cells alive and multiplying. The films are transparent, so that the doctors can see how the healing is progressing. Quite different materials make up false teeth, which are hard and tough and very crack resistant.

Structured latex particles were also introduced to provide multifunctional properties. Three component latexes with IPN cores as impact and damping improvers were prepared by three-stage emulsion polymerization. The IPN cores were composed of one impact part and one damping part.

Keywords

Emulsion Polymerization Lower Critical Solution Temperature Latex Particle Interpenetrate Polymer Network Butyl Acrylate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Abbreviations and Acronyms

AA

Acrylic acid

Bd

Butadiene

DACBA

Diallyl carbonate of bisphenol-A

DMS

Dynamic mechanical spectroscopy

EA

Ethyl acrylate

EMA

Ethyl methacrylate

EPDM

Ethylene-propylene-diene copolymer

HEMA

Hydroxyethyl methacrylate

IENs

Interpenetrating elastomer networks

IPN

Interpenetrating polymer network

LA

Loss area

LIPN

Latex interpenetrating polymer network

nBA

n -butyl acrylate

NBR

Nitrile butadiene rubber

PA

Polyamide

PAA

Poly(acrylic acid)

PAcr

Polyacrylate

PB

Polybutadiene

PI

Polyisoprene

PMMA

Poly(methyl methacrylate)

PP

Polypropylene

PPE

Poly(2,6-dimethyl phenylene oxide)

PS

Polystyrene

PU

Polyurethane

PVC

Poly(vinyl chloride)

S

Styrene

SBR

Styrene butadiene rubber

SEBS

Styrene ethylene butylene styrene

SIN

Simultaneous interpenetrating network

TA

Tan(delta) area

TBPIN

t-butyl peroxyisononanoate

U

Urethane

VAc

Vinyl acetate

VOC

Volatile organic compounds

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© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Chemical Engineering and Materials Science and Engineering, Whitaker LaboratoryLehigh UniversityBethlehemUSA
  2. 2.Arkema Coating ResinsCaryUSA

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