Advertisement

Ecosystem Resilience and Resistance to Climate Change

  • Bayden D. RussellEmail author
  • Sean D. Connell
Reference work entry
Part of the Handbook of Global Environmental Pollution book series (EGEP, volume 1)

Abstract

As the human population increases, so too does the rate at which we modify the environment and produce waste. Nutrient pollution from terrestrial sources continues to increase. Marine waters have absorbed ∼30 % of CO2 emissions, and many marine species are already being forced to cope with increasing ocean acidification. Global sea surface temperatures have warmed at ∼0.13 °C per decade since the mid-1980s and are predicted to rise a further 1–4 °C by the end of the century. Despite increasing research into these individual stressors, there is still only a limited understanding of how multiple stressors, such as increasing CO2, temperature, and nutrient pollution, may combine to accelerate degradation of ecosystems. Yet, if we are to manage our marine environment to increase ecosystem resistance and resilience into the future, we need to understand how these stressors combine to cause ecosystem phase-shifts.

Keywords

Ecosystem resilience and resistance Synergistic effects Global stressors Local stressors Climate change Nutrient pollution 

References

  1. Connell SD, Russell BD (2010) The direct effects of increasing CO2 and temperature on non-calcifying organisms: increasing the potential for phase shifts in kelp forests. Proc R Soc B 277:1409–1415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Dayton PK, Currie V, Gerrodette T, Keller BD, Rosenthal R, Ventresca D (1984) Patch dynamics and stability of some California kelp communities. Ecol Monogr 54:253–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Falkenberg LJ, Russell BD, Connell SD (2012) Stability of strong species interactions resist the synergistic effects of local and global pollution in kelp forests. Plos One 7:e33841CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Hall-Spencer JM, Rodolfo-Metalpa R, Martin S et al (2008) Volcanic carbon dioxide vents show ecosystem effects of ocean acidification. Nature 454:96–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Harley CDG, Hughes AR, Hultgren KM et al (2006) The impacts of climate change in coastal marine systems. Ecol Lett 9:228–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Helmuth B, Harley CDG, Halpin PM, O’Donnell M, Hofmann GE, Blanchette CA (2002) Climate change and latitudinal patterns of intertidal thermal stress. Science 298:1015–1017CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Jones CG, Lawton JH, Shachak M (1997) Positive and negative effects of organisms as physical ecosystem engineers. Ecology 78:1946–1957CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Paine RT, Tegner MJ, Johnson EA (1998) Compounded perturbations yield ecological surprises. Ecosystems 1:535–545CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Russell BD, Thompson JI, Falkenberg LJ, Connell SD (2009) Synergistic effects of climate change and local stressors: CO2 and nutrient driven change in subtidal rocky habitats. Glob Chang Biol 15:2153–2162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Scheffer M, Carpenter S, Foley JA, Folke C, Walker B (2001) Catastrophic shifts in ecosystems. Nature 413:591–596CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Vitousek PM, Mooney HA, Lubchenco J, Melillo JM (1997) Human domination of earth’s ecosystems. Science 277:494–499CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Additional Recommended Reading

  1. Connell SD, Gillanders BM (2007) Marine ecology. Oxford University Press, MelbourneGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Southern Seas Ecology LaboratoriesSchool of Earth & Environmental Sciences, University of AdelaideAdelaideAustralia

Personalised recommendations