Abstract

Planetary rings are the only nearby astrophysical disks and the only disks that have been investigated by spacecraft (especially the Cassini spacecraft orbiting Saturn). Although there are significant differences between rings and other disks, chiefly the large planet/ring mass ratio that greatly enhances the flatness of rings (aspect ratios as small as 10− 7), understanding of disks in general can be enhanced by understanding the dynamical processes observed at close range and in real time in planetary rings.We review the known ring systems of the four giant planets, as well as the prospects for ring systems yet to be discovered. We then review planetary rings by type. The A, B, and C rings of Saturn, plus the Cassini Division, comprise our solar system’s only dense broad disk and host many phenomena of general application to disks including spiral waves, gap formation, self-gravity wakes, viscous overstability and normal modes, impact clouds, and orbital evolution of embedded moons. Dense narrow rings are found both at Uranus (where they comprise the main rings entirely) and at Saturn (where they are embedded in the broad disk) and are the primary natural laboratory for understanding shepherding and self-stability. Narrow dusty rings, likely generated by embedded source bodies, are surprisingly found to sport azimuthally confined arcs at Neptune, Saturn, and Jupiter. Finally, every known ring system includes a substantial component of diffuse dusty rings.Planetary rings have shown themselves to be useful as detectors of planetary processes around them, including the planetary magnetic field and interplanetary impactors as well as the gravity of nearby perturbing moons. Experimental rings science has made great progress in recent decades, especially numerical simulations of self-gravity wakes and other processes but also laboratory investigations of coefficient of restitution and spectroscopic ground truth. The age of self-sustained ring systems is a matter of debate; formation scenarios are most plausible in the context of the early solar system, while signs of youthfulness indicate at least that rings have never been static phenomena.

Notes

Acknowledgments

I thank Mark Showalter, Joe Burns, Josh Colwell, Jeff Cuzzi, Jonathan Fortney, Doug Hamilton, Matt Hedman, Doug Lin, Phil Nicholson, and John Weiss for helpful conversations. I additionally thank Robin Canup, John Cooper, Estelle Deau, Larry Esposito, and Rob French for valuable comments on the manuscript, and Hanno Rein for help in creating Fig7-3. I acknowledge funding from NASA Outer Planets Research (NNX10AP94G), NASA Cassini Data Analysis (NNX08AQ72G and NNX10AG67G), and the Cassini Project.

References

  1. Acuna, M. H., & Ness, N. F. 1976, The main magnetic field of Jupiter. J. Geophys. Res., 81, 2917–2922ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Agarwal, M., Tiscareno, M. S., Hedman, M. M., & Burns, J. A. 2008, Dynamics of faint rings associated with Methone, Anthe and Pallene. AAS Div. Planet. Sci. Meet. Abstr., 40, 30.02ADSGoogle Scholar
  3. Agarwal, M., Tiscareno, M. S., Hedman, M. M., & Burns, J. A. 2009, Dynamics of rings and arcs associated with three small moons of Saturn: Methone, Anthe and Pallene. AAS Div. Dyn. Astron. Meet. Abstr., 40, 3.05Google Scholar
  4. Albers, N., Sremčević, M., Colwell, J. E., & Esposito, L. W. 2012, Saturn’s F ring as seen by Cassini UVIS: kinematics and statistics. Icarus, 217, 367–388ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Alexander, A. F. O. 1962, The Planet Saturn: A History of Observation, Theory and Discovery (London: Faber and Faber)Google Scholar
  6. Andrews, J. P. 1930, Theory of collision of spheres of soft metals. Phil. Mag. Ser. 7, 9, 593–610Google Scholar
  7. Barnes, J. W., & Fortney, J. J. 2004, Transit detectability of ring systems around extrasolar giant planets. Astrophys. J., 616, 1193–1203ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Beurle, K., Murray, C. D., Williams, G. A., Evans, M. W., Cooper, N. J., & Agnor, C. B. 2010, Direct evidence for gravitational instability and moonlet formation in Saturn’s rings. Astrophys. J. Lett., 718, L176–L180ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Borderies, N., & Longaretti, P. Y. 1987, Description and behavior of streamlines in planetary rings. Icarus, 72, 593–603ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Borderies-Rappaport, N., & Longaretti, P.-Y. 1994, Test particle motion around an oblate planet. Icarus, 107, 129–141ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Borderies, N., Goldreich, P., & Tremaine, S. 1983, The dynamics of elliptical rings. Astron. J., 88, 1560–1568ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Borderies, N., Goldreich, P., & Tremaine, S. 1984, Unsolved problems in planetary ring dynamics, in Planetary Rings, ed. R. Greenberg, & A. Brahic (Tucson: University of Arizona Press), 713–734Google Scholar
  13. Bosh, A. S., Olkin, C. B., French, R. G., & Nicholson, P. D. 2002, Saturn’s F ring: kinematics and particle sizes from stellar occultation studies, Icarus, 157, 57–75ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bridges, F. G., Hatzes, A., & Lin, D. N. C. 1984, Structure, stability and evolution of Saturn’s rings. Nature, 309, 333–335ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Brown, T. M., Charbonneau, D., Gilliland, R. L., Noyes, R. W., & Burrows, A. 2001, Hubble Space Telescope time-series photometry of the transiting planet of HD 209458. Astrophys. J., 552, 699–709ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Burns, J. A., & Cuzzi, J. N. 2006, Our local astrophysical laboratory. Science, 312, 1753–1755CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Burns, J. A., Lamy, P. L., & Soter, S. 1979, Radiation forces on small particles in the solar system. Icarus, 40, 1–48ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Burns, J. A., Showalter, M. R., & Morfill, G. E. 1984, The ethereal rings of Jupiter and Saturn, in Planetary Rings, ed. R. Greenberg, & A. Brahic (Tucson: University of Arizona Press), 200–272Google Scholar
  19. Burns, J. A., Schaffer, L. E., Greenberg, R. J., & Showalter, M. R. 1985, Lorentz resonances and the structure of the Jovian ring. Nature, 316, 115–119ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Burns, J. A., Showalter, M. R., Hamilton, D. P., Nicholson, P. D., de Pater, I., Ockert-Bell, M. E., & Thomas, P. C. 1999, The formation of Jupiter’s faint rings. Science, 284, 1146–1150ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Burns, J. A., Hamilton, D. P., & Showalter, M. R. 2001, Dusty rings and circumplanetary dust: observations and simple physics, in Interplanetary Dust, ed. E. Grün, B. Å. S. Gustafson, S. Dermott, & H. Fechtig (Berlin: Springer), 641–725Google Scholar
  22. Burns, J. A., Simonelli, D. P., Showalter, M. R., Hamilton, D. P., Porco, C. D., Throop, H., & Esposito, L. W. 2004, Jupiter’s ring-moon system, in Jupiter: The Planet, Satellites and Magnetosphere, ed. F. Bagenal, T. E. Dowling, & W. B. McKinnon (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), 241–262Google Scholar
  23. Canup, R. M. 2010, Origin of Saturn’s rings and inner moons by mass removal from a lost Titan-sized satellite. Nature, 468, 943–926ADSGoogle Scholar
  24. Canup, R. M., & Esposito, L. W. 1995, Accretion in the Roche zone: coexistence of rings and ring moons. Icarus, 113, 331–352ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Canup, R. M., & Ward, W. R. 2002, Formation of the Galilean satellites: conditions of accretion. Astron. J., 124, 3404–3423ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Canup, R. M., & Ward, W. R. 2006, A common mass scaling for satellite systems of gaseous planets. Nature, 441, 834–839ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Chandrasekhar, S. 1969, Ellipsoidal Figures of Equilibrium (New Haven: Yale University Press)MATHGoogle Scholar
  28. Charnoz, S., Porco, C. C., Déau, E., Brahic, A., Spitale, J. N., Bacques, G., & Baillie, K. 2005, Cassini discovers a kinematic spiral ring around Saturn. Science, 310, 1300–1304ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Charnoz, S., Brahic, A., Thomas, P. C., & Porco, C. C. 2007, The equatorial ridges of Pan and Atlas: terminal accretionary ornaments? Science, 318, 1622–1624ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Charnoz, S., Dones, L., Esposito, L. W., Estrada, P. R., & Hedman, M. M. 2009a, Origin and evolution of Saturn’s ring system, in Saturn from Cassini-Huygens, ed. M. Dougherty, L. Esposito, & S. M. Krimigis (Dordrecht: Springer), 537–575Google Scholar
  31. Charnoz, S., Morbidelli, A., Dones, L., & Salmon, J. 2009b, Did Saturn’s rings form during the Late Heavy Bombardment? Icarus, 199, 413–428ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Charnoz, S., Salmon, J., & Crida, A. 2010, The recent formation of Saturn’s moonlets from viscous spreading of the main rings. Nature, 465, 752–754ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Charnoz, S., et al. 2011, Accretion of Saturn’s mid-sized moons during the viscous spreading of young massive rings: solving the paradox of silicate-poor rings versus silicate-rich moons. Icarus, 216, 535–550ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Chavez, C. E. 2009, Appearance of Saturn’s F ring azimuthal channels for the anti-alignment configuration between the ring and Prometheus. Icarus, 203, 233–237ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Chiang, E. I., & Goldreich, P. 2000, Apse alignment of narrow eccentric planetary rings. Astrophys. J., 540, 1084–1090ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Colombo, G., Goldreich, P., & Harris, A. W. 1976, Spiral structure as an explanation for the asymmetric brightness of Saturn’s A ring. Nature, 264, 344–345ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Colwell, J. E., Esposito, L. W., & Sremčević, M. 2006, Self-gravity wakes in Saturn’s A ring measured by stellar occultations from Cassini. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L07201ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Colwell, J. E., Esposito, L. W., Sremčević, M., Stewart, G. R., & McClintock, W. E. 2007, Self-gravity wakes and radial structure of Saturn’s B ring. Icarus, 190, 127–144ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Colwell, J. E., et al. 2008, Ejecta from impacts at 0.2–2.3 m/s in low gravity. Icarus, 195, 908–917ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Colwell, J. E., Cooney, J. H., Esposito, L. W., & Sremčević, M. 2009a, Density waves in Cassini UVIS stellar occultations. 1. The Cassini division. Icarus, 200, 574–580CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Colwell, J. E., Nicholson, P. D., Tiscareno, M. S., Murray, C. D., French, R. G., & Marouf, E. A. 2009b, The structure of Saturn’s rings, in Saturn from Cassini-Huygens, ed. M. Dougherty, L. Esposito, & S. M. Krimigis (Dordrecht: Springer), 375–412Google Scholar
  42. Colwell, J. E., Jerousek, R. G., & Esposito, L. W. 2010, Sharp edges in Saturn’s rings: radial structure and longitudinal variability. AAS Div. Planet. Sci. Meet. Abstr., 42, 50.01ADSGoogle Scholar
  43. Cooper, J. F., Eraker, J. H., & Simpson, J. A. 1985, The secondary radiation under Saturn’s A-B-C rings produced by cosmic ray interactions. J. Geophys. Res., 90, 3415–3427ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Crida, A., Papaloizou, J. C. B., Rein, H., Charnoz, S., & Salmon, J. 2010, Migration of a moonlet in a ring of solid particles: theory and application to Saturn’s propellers. Astron. J., 140, 944–953ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Cuzzi, J. N., & Burns, J. A. 1988, Charged particle depletion surrounding Saturn’s F ring: evidence for a moonlet belt? Icarus, 74, 284–324ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Cuzzi, J. N., & Scargle, J. D. 1985, Wavy edges suggest moonlet in Encke’s gap. Astrophys. J., 292, 276–290ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Cuzzi, J., Clark, R., Filacchione, G., French, R., Johnson, R., Marouf, E., & Spilker, L. 2009, Ring particle composition and size distribution, in Saturn from Cassini-Huygens, ed. M. Dougherty, L. Esposito, & S. M. Krimigis (Dordrecht: Springer), 459–509Google Scholar
  48. Cuzzi, J. N., et al. 2010, An evolving view of Saturn’s dynamic rings. Science, 327, 1470–1475ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Daubechies, I. 1992, Ten Lectures on Wavelets (Philadelphia: SIAM)MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Dawson, R. I., French, R. G., & Showalter, M. R. 2010, Packed perturbers: short-term interactions among Uranus’ inner moons. AAS Div. Dyn. Astron. Meet. Abstr., 41, 8.07Google Scholar
  51. de Pater, I., Martin, S. C., & Showalter, M. R. 2004, Keck near-infrared observations of Saturn’s E and G rings during Earth’s ring plane crossing in August 1995. Icarus, 172, 446–454ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. de Pater, I., Gibbard, S. G., Chiang, E., Hammel, H. B., Macintosh, B., Marchis, F., Martin, S. C., Roe, H. G., & Showalter, M. 2005, The dynamic neptunian ring arcs: evidence for a gradual disappearance of Liberté and resonant jump of Courage. Icarus, 174, 263–272ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. de Pater, I., Hammel, H. B., Gibbard, S. G., & Showalter, M. R. 2006, New dust belts of Uranus: one ring, two ring, red ring, blue ring. Science, 312, 92–94ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. de Pater, I., Hammel, H. B., Showalter, M. R., & van Dam, M. A. 2007, The dark side of the rings of Uranus. Science, 317, 1888–1890ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Denk, T., et al. 2010, Iapetus: unique surface properties and a global color dichotomy from Cassini imaging. Science, 327, 435–439ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Dermott, S. F., & Murray, C. D. 1980, Origin of the eccentricity gradient and the apse alignment of the epsilon ring of Uranus. Icarus, 43, 338–349ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Dilley, J., & Crawford, D. 1996, Mass dependence of energy loss in collisions of icy spheres: an experimental study. J. Geophys. Res., 101, 9267–9270ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Dones, L., & Porco, C. C. 1989, Spiral density wakes in Saturn’s A ring? Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 21, 929ADSGoogle Scholar
  59. Dumas, C., Terrile, R. J., Smith, B. A., Schneider, G., & Becklin, E. E. 1999, Stability of Neptune’s ring arcs in question. Nature, 400, 733–735ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Duncan, M. J., & Lissauer, J. J. 1997, Orbital stability of the Uranian satellite system. Icarus, 125, 1–12ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Durda, D. D., Movshovitz, N., Richardson, D. C., Asphaug, E., Morgan, A., Rawlings, A. R., & Vest, C. 2011, Experimental determination of the coefficient of restitution for meter-scale granite spheres. Icarus, 211, 849–855ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Durisen, R. H., Cramer, N. L., Murphy, B. W., Cuzzi, J. N., Mullikin, T. L., & Cederbloom, S. E. 1989, Ballistic transport in planetary ring systems due to particle erosion mechanisms I. Theory, numerical methods, and illustrative examples. Icarus, 80, 136–166ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Durisen, R. H., Bode, P. W., Cuzzi, J. N., Cederbloom, S. E., & Murphy, B. W. 1992, Ballistic transport in planetary ring systems due to particle erosion mechanisms II. Theoretical models for Saturn’s A- and B-ring inner edges. Icarus, 100, 364–393Google Scholar
  64. Elliot, J. L., Dunham, E., & Mink, D. 1977, The rings of Uranus. Nature, 267, 328–330ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Elliott, J. P., & Esposito, L. W. 2011, Regolith depth growth on an icy body orbiting Saturn and evolution of bidirectional reflectance due to surface composition changes. Icarus, 212, 268–274ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Esposito, L. W. 2006, Cassini observations and the history of Saturn’s rings. AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, P23E-0110Google Scholar
  67. Esposito, L. W. 2010, Composition, structure, dynamics, and evolution of Saturn’s rings. Ann. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci., 38, 383–410ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Esposito, L. W., Brahic, A., Burns, J. A., & Marouf, E. A. 1991, Particle properties and processes in Uranus’ rings, in Uranus, ed. J. T. Bergstralh, E. D. Miner, & M. S. Matthews (Tucson: University of Arizona Press), 410–465Google Scholar
  69. Esposito, L. W., Meinke, B. K., Colwell, J. E., Nicholson, P. D., & Hedman, M. M. 2008, Moonlets and clumps in Saturn’s F ring. Icarus, 194, 278–289ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Farmer, A. J., & Goldreich, P. 2005, Spoke formation under moving plasma clouds. Icarus, 179, 535–538ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Fillius, R. W., McIlwain, C. E., & Mogro-Campero, A. 1975, Radiation belts of Jupiter: a second look. Science 188, 465–467ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Foryta, D. W., & Sicardy, B. 1996, The dynamics of the neptunian Adams ring’s arcs. Icarus, 123, 129–167ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Franklin, F. A., Cook, A. F., Barrey, R. T. F., Roff, C. A., Hunt, G. E., & de Rueda, H. B. 1987, Voyager observations of the azimuthal brightness variations in Saturn’s rings. Icarus, 69, 280–296ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. French, R. S., & Showalter, M. R. 2011, Cupid is doomed: an analysis of the stability of the inner Uranian satellites. AAS Div. Dyn. Astron. Meet. Abstr., 42, 6.02Google Scholar
  75. French, R. G., Nicholson, P. D., Porco, C. C., & Marouf, E. A. 1991, Dynamics and structure of the Uranian rings, in Uranus, ed. J. T. Bergstralh, E. D. Miner, & M. S. Matthews, (Tucson: University of Arizona Press), 327–409Google Scholar
  76. French, R. G., et al. 1993, Geometry of the Saturn system from the 3 July 1989 occultation of 28 SGR and Voyager observations. Icarus, 103, 163–214ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Gaudi, B. S., Chang, H., & Han, C. 2003, Probing structures of distant extrasolar planets with microlensing. Astrophys. J., 586, 527–539ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Giese, B., Denk, T., Neukum, G., Roatsch, T., Helfenstein, P., Thomas, P. C., Turtle, E. P., McEwen, A., & Porco, C. C. 2008, The topography of Iapetus’ leading side. Icarus, 193, 359–371ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Goertz, C. K., & Morfill, G. 1983, A model for the formation of spokes in Saturn’s rings. Icarus, 53, 219–229ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Goldreich, P., & Tremaine, S. 1978a, The velocity dispersion in Saturn’s rings. Icarus, 34, 227–239ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Goldreich, P., & Tremaine, S. 1978b, The formation of the Cassini division in Saturn’s rings. Icarus, 34, 240–253ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Goldreich, P., & Tremaine, S. 1979a, Towards a theory for the Uranian rings. Nature, 277, 97–99ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Goldreich, P., & Tremaine, S. 1979b, Precession of the epsilon ring of Uranus. Astron. J., 84, 1638–1641ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Goldreich, P., & Tremaine, S. 1980, Disk-satellite interactions. Astrophys. J., 241, 425–441MathSciNetADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Goldreich, P., & Tremaine, S. 1981, The origin of the eccentricities of the rings of Uranus. Astrophys. J., 243, 1062–1075MathSciNetADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Goldreich, P., & Tremaine, S. 1982, The dynamics of planetary rings. Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys., 20, 249–283ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Goldreich, P., Tremaine, S., & Borderies, N. 1986, Towards a theory for Neptune’s arc rings. Astron. J., 92, 490–494ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Goldreich, P., Murray, N., Longaretti, P. Y., & Banfield, D. 1989, Neptune’s story. Science, 245, 500–504ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Hahn, J. M. 2007, The secular evolution of a close ring-satellite system: the excitation of spiral bending waves at a nearby gap edge. Astrophys. J., 665, 856–865ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Hahn, J. M. 2008, The secular evolution of a close ring-satellite system: the excitation of spiral density waves at a nearby gap edge. Astrophys. J., 680, 1569–1581ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Hahn, J. M., Spitale, J. N., & Porco, C. C. 2009, Dynamics of the sharp edges of broad planetary rings. Astrophys. J., 699, 686–710ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Halme, V.-P., Salo, H., Sremčević, M., Albers, N., Schmidt, J., Seiss, M., & Spahn, F. 2010, Dynamical and photometric simulations of propeller features in Saturn’s A ring. AAS Div. Planet. Sci. Meet. Abstr., 42, 50.02ADSGoogle Scholar
  93. Hamilton, D. P. 1996, The asymmetric time-variable rings of Mars. Icarus, 119, 153–172MathSciNetADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Hamilton, D. P. 2006, The collisional cascade model for Saturn’s ring spokes. AAS Div. Planet. Sci. Meet. Abstr., 38, 51.04ADSGoogle Scholar
  95. Hamilton, D. P., & Krüger, H. 2008, The sculpting of Jupiter’s gossamer rings by its shadow. Nature, 453, 72–75ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Hänninen, J., & Porco, C. 1997, Collisional simulations of Neptune’s ring arcs. Icarus, 126, 1–27ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Hatzes, A. P., Bridges, F. G., & Lin, D. N. C. 1988, Collisional properties of ice spheres at low impact velocities. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc., 231, 1091–1115ADSGoogle Scholar
  98. Hatzes, A. P., Bridges, F., Lin, D. N. C., & Sachtjen, S. 1991, Coagulation of particles in Saturn’s rings: measurements of the cohesive force of water frost. Icarus, 89, 113–121ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Hedman, M. M., et al. 2005, Morphology, movements and models of ringlets in Saturn’s Encke gap. AAS Div. Planet. Sci. Meet. Abstr., 37, 64.01ADSGoogle Scholar
  100. Hedman, M. M., Nicholson, P. D., Salo, H., Wallis, B. D., Buratti, B. J., Baines, K. H., Brown, R. H., & Clark, R. N. 2007a, Self-gravity wake structures in Saturn’s A ring revealed by Cassini VIMS. Astron. J., 133, 2624–2629ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Hedman, M. M., Burns, J. A., Tiscareno, M. S., & Porco, C. C. 2007b, The heliotropic rings of Saturn. AAS Div. Planet. Sci. Meet. Abstr., 39, 10.09ADSGoogle Scholar
  102. Hedman, M. M., et al. 2007c, Saturn’s dynamic D ring. Icarus, 188, 89–107ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Hedman, M. M., Burns, J. A., Tiscareno, M. S., Porco, C. C., Jones, G. H., Roussos, E., Krupp, N., Paranicas, C., & Kempf, S. 2007d, The source of Saturn’s G ring. Science, 317, 653–656ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Hedman, M. M., Nicholson, P. D., Showalter, M. R., Brown, R. H., Buratti, B. J., & Clark, R. N. 2009a, Spectral observations of the Enceladus plume with Cassini-VIMS. Astrophys. J., 693, 1749–1762ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Hedman, M. M., Murray, C. D., Cooper, N. J., Tiscareno, M. S., Beurle, K., Evans, M. W., & Burns, J. A. 2009b, Three tenuous rings/arcs for three tiny moons. Icarus, 199, 378–386ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Hedman, M. M., Burns, J. A., Tiscareno, M. S., & Porco, C. C. 2009c, Organizing some very tenuous things: resonant structures in Saturn’s faint rings. Icarus, 202, 260–279ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Hedman, M. M., Nicholson, P. D., Baines, K. H., Buratti, B. J., Sotin, C., Clark, R. N., Brown, R. H., French, R. G., & Marouf, E. A. 2010a, The architecture of the Cassini division. Astron. J., 139, 228–251ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Hedman, M. M., Burt, J. A., Burns, J. A., & Tiscareno, M. S. 2010b, The shape and dynamics of a heliotropic dusty ringlet in the Cassini division. Icarus, 210, 284–297ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Hedman, M. M., Cooper, N. J., Murray, C. D., Beurle, K., Evans, M. W., Tiscareno, M. S., & Burns, J. A. 2010c, Aegaeon (Saturn LIII), a G-ring object. Icarus, 207, 433–447ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Hedman, M. M., Nicholson, P. D., Filacchione, G., Capaccioni, F., Ciarnello, M., & Clark, R. N. 2011a, Correlations between the spectra and structure of Saturn’s main rings. AAS Div. Planet. Sci. Meet. Abstr., 43, 532ADSGoogle Scholar
  111. Hedman, M. M., Burns, J. A., & Tiscareno, M. S. 2011b, Of horseshoes and heliotropes: the dynamics of dust in the Encke gap. AAS Div. Dyn. Astron. Meet. Abstr., 42, 8.02Google Scholar
  112. Hedman, M. M., Nicholson, P. D., Showalter, M. R., Brown, R. H., Buratti, B. J., Clark, R. N., Baines, K., & Sotin, C. 2011c, The Christiansen effect in Saturn’s narrow dusty rings and the spectral identification of clumps in the F ring. Icarus, 215, 695–711ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Hedman, M. M., Burns, J. A., Evans, M. W., Tiscareno, M. S., & Porco, C. C. 2011d, Saturn’s curiously corrugated C ring. Science, 332, 708–711ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Heißelmann, D., Blum, J., Fraser, H. J., & Wolling, K. 2010, Microgravity experiments on the collisional behavior of saturnian ring particles. Icarus, 206, 424–430ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Hill, J. R., & Mendis, D. A. 1981, On the braids and spokes in Saturn’s ring system. Moon Planet, 24, 431–436ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Horányi, M., Burns, J. A., Hedman, M. M., Jones, G. H., & Kempf, S. 2009, Diffuse rings, in Saturn from Cassini-Huygens, ed. M. Dougherty, L. Esposito, & S. M. Krimigis (Dordrecht: Springer), 511–536Google Scholar
  117. Ip, W.-H. 2006, On a ring origin of the equatorial ridge of Iapetus. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L16203ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Jacobson, R. A., Campbell, J. K., Taylor, A. H., & Synnott, S. P. 1992, The masses of Uranus and its major satellites from Voyager tracking data and Earth-based Uranian satellite data. Astron. J., 103, 2068–2078ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Jacobson, R. A., Spitale, J., Porco, C. C., Beurle, K., Cooper, N. J., Evans, M. W., & Murray, C. D. 2008, Revised orbits of Saturn’s small inner satellites. Astron. J., 135, 261–263ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Jones, G. H., et al. 2006, Formation of Saturn’s ring spokes by lightning-induced electron beams. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L21202.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Jones, G. H., et al. 2008, The dust halo of Saturn’s largest icy moon, Rhea. Science, 319, 1380–1384ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Julian, W. H., & Toomre, A. 1966, Non-axisymmetric responses of differentially rotating disks of stars. Astrophys. J., 146, 810–830ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Kalas, P., Graham, J. R., & Clampin, M. 2005, A planetary system as the origin of structure in Fomalhaut’s dust belt. Nature, 435, 1067–1070ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Kalas, P., Graham, J. R., Chiang, E., Fitzgerald, M. P., Clampin, M., Kite, E. S., Stapelfeldt, K., Marois, C., & Krist, J. 2008, Optical images of an exosolar planet 25 light-years from Earth. Science, 322, 1345–1348ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Kempf, S., Beckmann, U., & Schmidt, J. 2010, How the Enceladus dust plume feeds Saturn’s E ring. Icarus, 206, 446–457ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Krivov, A. V., & Hamilton, D. P. 1997, Martian dust belts: waiting for discovery. Icarus, 128, 335–353ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Laughlin, G., Korchagin, V., & Adams, F. C. 1997, Spiral mode saturation in self-gravitating disks. Astrophys. J., 477, 410–423ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Levison, H. F., Walsh, K. J., Barr, A. C., & Dones, L. 2011, Ridge formation and de-spinning of Iapetus via an impact-generated satellite. Icarus, 214, 773–778ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Lewis, M. C., & Stewart, G. R. 2009, Features around embedded moonlets in Saturn’s rings: the role of self-gravity and particle size distributions. Icarus, 199, 387–412ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Lin, C. C., & Shu, F. H. 1964, On the spiral structure of disk galaxies. Astrophys. J., 140, 646–655MathSciNetADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Lissauer, J. J. 1985, Shepherding model for Neptune’s arc ring. Nature, 318, 544–545ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Longaretti, P.-Y., & Borderies, N. 1991, Streamline formalism and ring orbit determination. Icarus, 94, 165–170 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Lubow, S. H. 2010, Eccentricity growth rates of tidally distorted discs. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc., 406, 2777–2786ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Mamajek, E. E., Quillen, A. C., Pecaut, M. J., Moolekamp, F., Scott, E. L., Kenworthy, M. A., Collier Cameron, A., & Parley, N. R. 2012, Planetary construction zones in occultation: discovery of an extrasolar ring system transiting a young Sun-like star and future prospects for detecting eclipses by circumsecondary and circumplanetary disks. Astron. J., 143, 72ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Matson, D. L., Castillo-Rogez, J. C., Schubert, G., Sotin, C., & McKinnon, W. B. 2009, The thermal evolution and internal structure of Saturn’s mid-sized icy satellites, in Saturn from Cassini-Huygens, ed. M. Dougherty, L. Esposito, & S. M. Krimigis (Dordrecht: Springer), 577–612Google Scholar
  136. McGhee, C. A., French, R. G., Dones, L., Cuzzi, J. N., Salo, H. J., & Danos, R. 2005, HST observations of spokes in Saturn’s B ring. Icarus, 173, 508–521ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Meyer, J., & Wisdom, J. 2007, Tidal heating in Enceladus. Icarus, 188, 535–539ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Meyer, J., & Wisdom, J. 2008a, Tidal evolution of Mimas, Enceladus, & Dione. Icarus, 193, 213–223ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Meyer, J., & Wisdom, J. 2008b, Episodic volcanism on Enceladus: application of the Ojakangas-Stevenson model. Icarus, 198, 178–180ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Michikoshi, S., & Kokubo, E. 2011, Formation of a propeller structure by a moonlet in a dense planetary ring. Astrophys. J. Lett., 732, L23.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Millis, R. L., Wasserman, L. H., & Birch, P. V. 1977, Detection of rings around Uranus. Nature, 267, 330–331ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Miner, E. D., Wessen, R. R., & Cuzzi, J. N. 2007, Planetary Ring Systems (Chichester: Springer Praxis)Google Scholar
  143. Mitchell, C. J., Horányi, M., Havnes, O., & Porco, C. C. 2006, Saturn’s spokes: lost and found. Science, 311, 1587–1589ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Mitchell, C., Porco, C., Dones, L., & Spitale, J. 2012, The behavior of spokes in Saturn’s B ring. Icarus, submittedGoogle Scholar
  145. Morfill, G. E., & Thomas, H. M. 2005, Spoke formation under moving plasma clouds: The Goertz-Morfill model revisited. Icarus, 179, 539–542ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Mosqueira, I., & Estrada, P. R. 2002, Apse alignment of the Uranian rings. Icarus, 158, 545–556ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Mosqueira, I., & Estrada, P. R. 2003, Formation of the regular satellites of giant planets in an extended gaseous nebula I: subnebula model and accretion of satellites. Icarus, 163, 198–231ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Murray, C. D., & Dermott, S. F. 1999, Solar System Dynamics (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press)MATHGoogle Scholar
  149. Murray, C. D., & Thompson, R. P. 1990, Orbits of shepherd satellites deduced from the structure of the rings of Uranus. Nature, 348, 499–502ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Murray, C. D., & Thompson, R. P. 1991, Erratum: orbits of shepherd satellites deduced from the structure of the rings of Uranus. Nature, 350, 90ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Murray, C. D., Chavez, C., Beurle, K., Cooper, N., Evans, M. W., Burns, J. A., & Porco, C. C. 2005, How Prometheus creates structure in Saturn’s F ring. Nature, 437, 1326–1329ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Murray, C. D., Beurle, K., Cooper, N. J., Evans, M. W., Williams, G. A., & Charnoz, S. 2008, The determination of the structure of Saturn’s F ring by nearby moonlets. Nature, 453, 739–744ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Namouni, F., & Porco, C., 2002, The confinement of Neptune’s ring arcs by the moon Galatea. Nature, 417, 45–47ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Nicholson, P. D., & Hedman, M. M. 2010, Self-gravity wake parameters in Saturn’s A and B rings. Icarus, 206, 410–423ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Nicholson, P. D., Mosqueira, I., & Matthews, K. 1995, Stellar occultation observations of Neptune’s rings: 1984–1988. Icarus, 113, 295–330ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Nicholson, P. D., et al. 2008, A close look at Saturn’s rings with Cassini VIMS. Icarus, 193, 182–212ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Ockert-Bell, M. E., Burns, J. A., Daubar, I. J., Thomas, P. C., Veverka, J., Belton, M. J. S., & Klaasen, K. P. 1999, The structure of Jupiter’s ring system as revealed by the Galileo imaging experiment. Icarus, 138, 188–213ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Ohta, Y., Taruya, A., & Suto, Y. 2009, Predicting photometric and spectroscopic signatures of rings around transiting extrasolar planets. Astrophys. J., 690, 1–12ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Øieroset, M., Brain, D. A., Simpson, E., Mitchell, D. L., Phan, T. D., Halekas, J. S., Lin, R. P., & Acuña, M. H. 2010, Search for Phobos and Deimos gas/dust tori using in situ observations from Mars global surveyor MAG/ER. Icarus, 206, 189–198ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Orton, G. S., Baines, K. H., Cruikshank, D., Cuzzi, J. N., Krimigis, S. M., Miller, S., & Lellouch, E. 2009, Review of knowledge prior to the Cassini-Huygens mission and concurrent research, in Saturn from Cassini-Huygens, ed. M. Dougherty, L. Esposito, & S. M. Krimigis (Dordrecht: Springer), 9–54Google Scholar
  161. Owen, T., Danielson, G. E., Cook, A. F., Hansen, C., Hall, V. L., & Duxbury, T. C. 1979, Jupiter’s rings, Nature, 281, 442–446ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Pan, M., & Chiang, E. 2010, The propeller and the frog. Astrophys. J. Lett., 722, L178–L182ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Papaloizou, J. C. B., Nelson, R. P., Kley, W., Masset, F. S., & Artymowicz, P. 2007, Disk-planet interactions during planet formation, in Protostars and Planets V, ed. B. Reipurth, D. Jewitt, & K. Keil (Tucson: University of Arizona Press), 655–668Google Scholar
  164. Perrine, R. P., Richardson, D. C., & Scheeres, D. J. 2011, A numerical model of cohesion in planetary rings. Icarus, 212, 719–735ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Porco, C. C. 1991, An explanation for Neptune’s ring arcs. Science, 253, 995–1001ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Porco, C. C., Nicholson, P. D., Cuzzi, J. N., Lissauer, J. J., & Esposito, L. W. 1995, Neptune’s ring system, in Neptune and Triton, ed. D. P. Cruikshank (Tucson: University of Arizona Press), 703–804Google Scholar
  167. Porco, C. C., et al. 2005a, Cassini imaging science: initial results on Phoebe and Iapetus. Science, 307, 1237–1242ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Porco, C. C., et al. 2005b, Cassini imaging science: initial results on Saturn’s rings and small satellites. Science, 307, 1226–1236ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Porco, C. C., Thomas, P. C., Weiss, J. W., & Richardson, D. C. 2007, Saturn’s small satellites: clues to their origins. Science, 318, 1602–1607ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Porco, C. C., Weiss, J. W., Richardson, D. C., Dones, L., Quinn, T., & Throop, H. 2008, Simulations of the dynamical and light-scattering behavior of Saturn’s rings and the derivation of ring particle and disk properties. Astron. J., 136, 2172–2200ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Rappaport, N. J., Longaretti, P., French, R. G., Marouf, E. A., & McGhee, C. A. 2009, A procedure to analyze nonlinear density waves in Saturn’s rings using several occultation profiles. Icarus, 199, 154–173ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Rein, H., & Papaloizou, J. C. B. 2010, Stochastic orbital migration of small bodies in Saturn’s rings. Astron. Astrophys., 524, A22.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Renner, S., & Sicardy, B. 2006, Use of the geometric elements in numerical simulations. Cel. Mech. Dyn. Astron., 94, 237–248MathSciNetADSMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Richardson, D. C. 1994, Tree code simulations of planetary rings. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc., 269, 493–511ADSGoogle Scholar
  175. Richardson, J. E., Melosh, H. J., Lisse, C. M., & Carcich, B. 2007, A ballistics analysis of the Deep Impact ejecta plume: determining Comet Tempel 1’s gravity, mass, & density. Icarus, 190, 357–390ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Robbins, S. J., Stewart, G. R., Lewis, M. C., Colwell, J. E., & Sremčević, M. 2010, Estimating the masses of Saturn’s A and B rings from high-optical depth N-body simulations and stellar occultations. Icarus, 206, 431–445ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Rosen, P. A., & Lissauer, J. J. 1988, The Titan -1:0 nodal bending wave in Saturn’s ring C. Science, 241, 690–694ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Roussos, E., Jones, G. H., Krupp, N., Paranicas, C., Mitchell, D. G., Krimigis, S. M., Woch, J., Lagg, A., & Khurana, K. 2008, Energetic electron signatures of Saturn’s smaller moons: evidence of an arc of material at Methone. Icarus, 193, 455–464ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Salmon, J., Charnoz, S., Crida, A., & Brahic, A. 2010, Long-term and large-scale viscous evolution of dense planetary rings. Icarus, 209, 771–785ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Salo, H. 1992, Gravitational wakes in Saturn’s rings. Nature, 359, 619–621ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Salo, H. 1995, Simulations of dense planetary rings III. self-gravitating identical particles. Icarus, 117, 287–312ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Salo, H., & Karjalainen, R. 2003, Photometric modeling of Saturn’s rings I. Monte Carlo method and the effect of nonzero volume filling factor. Icarus, 164, 428–460Google Scholar
  183. Salo, H., Karjalainen, R., & French, R. G. 2004, Photometric modeling of Saturn’s rings. II. Azimuthal asymmetry in reflected and transmitted light. Icarus, 170, 70–90Google Scholar
  184. Schenk, P. M., & McKinnon, W. B. 2009, Global color variations on Saturn’s icy satellites, and new evidence for Rhea’s ring. AAS Div. Planet. Sci. Meet. Abstr., 41, 3.03Google Scholar
  185. Schenk, P., Hamilton, D. P., Johnson, R. E., McKinnon, W. B., Paranicas, C., Schmidt, J., & Showalter, M. R. 2011, Plasma, plumes and rings: saturn system dynamics as recorded in global color patterns on its midsize icy satellites. Icarus, 211, 740–757ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Schlichting, H. E., & Chang, P. 2011, Warm Saturns: on the nature of rings around extrasolar planets that reside inside the ice line. Astrophys. J., 734, 117ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Schmidt, J., Brilliantov, N., Spahn, F., & Kempf, S. 2008, Slow dust in Enceladus’ plume from condensation and wall collisions in tiger stripe fractures. Nature, 451, 685–688ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Schmidt, J., Ohtsuki, K., Rappaport, N., Salo, H., & Spahn, F. 2009, Dynamics of Saturn’s dense rings, in Saturn from Cassini-Huygens, ed. M. Dougherty, L. Esposito, & S. M. Krimigis (Dordrecht: Springer-Verlag), 413–458Google Scholar
  189. Seager, S. (ed.), 2010, Exoplanets (Tucson: University of Arizona Press)Google Scholar
  190. Seal, D. A., & Buffington, B. B. 2009, The Cassini extended mission, in Saturn from Cassini-Huygens, ed. M. Dougherty, L. Esposito, & S. M. Krimigis (Dordrecht: Springer), 725–744Google Scholar
  191. Seiß, M., Spahn, F., Sremčević, M., & Salo, H. 2005, Structures induced by small moonlets in Saturn’s rings: implications for the Cassini mission. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L11205.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Showalter, M. R. 1991, Visual detection of 1981S13, Saturn’s eighteenth satellite, and its role in the Encke gap. Nature, 351, 709–713ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Showalter, M. R. 2011, The rings of Uranus: shepherded or not? AAS Div. Planet. Sci. Meet. Abstr., 43, 1224ADSGoogle Scholar
  194. Showalter, M. R., & Cuzzi, J. N. 1992, Physical properties of Neptune’s ring system. Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 24, 1029ADSGoogle Scholar
  195. Showalter, M. R., & Lissauer, J. J. 2006, The second ring-moon system of Uranus: discovery and dynamics. Science, 311, 973–977ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Showalter, M. R., Cuzzi, J. N., Marouf, E. A., & Esposito, L. W. 1986, Satellite “wakes” and the orbit of the Encke Gap moonlet. Icarus, 66, 297–323ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Showalter, M. R., Cuzzi, J. N., & Larson, S. M. 1991, Structure and particle properties of Saturn’s E ring. Icarus, 94, 451–473ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Showalter, M. R., Hamilton, D. P., & Nicholson, P. D. 2006, A deep search for Martian dust rings and inner moons using the Hubble Space Telescope. Planet. Space Sci., 54, 844–854ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Showalter, M. R., Cheng, A. F., Weaver, H. A., Stern, S. A., Spencer, J. R., Throop, H. B., Birath, E. M., Rose, D., & Moore, J. M. 2007, Clump detections and limits on moons in Jupiter’s ring system. Science, 318, 232–234ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Showalter, M. R., French, R., Sfair, R., Argüelles, C., Pajuelo, M., Becerra, P., Hedman, M., & Nicholson, P. 2009, The brightening of Saturn’s F ring. AAS Div. Planet. Sci. Meet. Abstr., 41, 22.07ADSGoogle Scholar
  201. Showalter, M. R., Hamilton, D. P., Stern, S. A., Weaver, H. A., Steffl, A. J., & Young, L. A. 2011a, New satellite of (134340) Pluto: S/2011 (134340) 1. Cent. Bur. Electron. Telegr., 2769, 1ADSGoogle Scholar
  202. Showalter, M. R., Hedman, M. M., & Burns, J. A. 2011b, The impact of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 sends ripples through the rings of Jupiter. Science, 332, 711–713ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Shu, F. H. 1984, Waves in planetary rings, in Planetary Rings, ed. R. Greenberg, & A. Brahic (Tucson: University of Arizona Press), 513–561Google Scholar
  204. Sicardy, B., Roddier, F., Roddier, C., Perozzi, E., Graves, J. E., Guyon, O., & Northcott, M. J. 1999, Images of Neptune’s ring arcs obtained by a ground-based telescope. Nature, 400, 731–733ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Smith, B. A., et al. 1982, A new look at the Saturn system - The Voyager 2 images. Science, 215, 504–537ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Soter, S. 1974, Remarks on the origin of Iapetus’ photometric asymmetry. IAU Colloq., 28Google Scholar
  207. Spahn, F., & Sremčević, M. 2000, Density patterns induced by small moonlets in Saturn’s rings? Astron. Astrophys., 358, 368–372ADSGoogle Scholar
  208. Spencer, J. R., & Denk, T. 2010, Formation of Iapetus’ extreme albedo dichotomy by exogenically triggered thermal ice migration. Science, 327, 432–435ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Spitale, J., & Porco, C. C. 2006, Shapes and kinematics of eccentric features in Saturn’s C ring and Cassini division. AAS Div. Dyn. Astron. Meet. Abstr., 37, 7.02Google Scholar
  210. Spitale, J. N., & Porco, C. C. 2009, Time variability in the outer edge of Saturn’s A-ring revealed by Cassini imaging. Astron. J., 138, 1520–1528ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Spitale, J. N., & Porco, C. C. 2010, Detection of free unstable modes and massive bodies in Saturn’s outer B ring. Astron. J., 140, 1747–1757ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Spitale, J. N., Porco, C. C., & Colwell, J. 2008, An inclined saturnian ringlet at 1.954 Rs. AAS Div. Planet. Sci. Meet. Abstr., 40, 21.02Google Scholar
  213. Sremčević, M., Spahn, F., & Duschl, W. J. 2002, Density structures in perturbed thin cold discs. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc., 337, 1139–1152ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Sremčević, M., Schmidt, J., Salo, H., Seiß, M., Spahn, F., & Albers, N. 2007, A belt of moonlets in Saturn’s A ring. Nature, 449, 1019–1021ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Sremčević, M., Colwell, J. E., & Esposito, L. W. 2009, Small-scale ring structure observed in Cassini UVIS occultations. AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, P54A–05Google Scholar
  216. Steffl, A. J., & Stern, S. A. 2007, First constraints on rings in the Pluto system. Astron. J., 133, 1485–1489ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Stern, S. A., Weaver, H. A., Steffl, A. J., Mutchler, M. J., Merline, W. J., Buie, M. W., Young, E. F., Young, L. A., & Spencer, J. R. 2006, A giant impact origin for Pluto’s small moons and satellite multiplicity in the Kuiper belt. Nature, 439, 946–948ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Supulver, K. D., Bridges, F. G., & Lin, D. N. C. 1995, The coefficient of restitution of ice particles in glancing collisions: experimental results for unfrosted surfaces. Icarus, 113, 188–199ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Tamayo, D., Burns, J. A., Hamilton, D. P., & Hedman, M. M. 2011, Finding the trigger to Iapetus’ odd global albedo pattern: dynamics of dust from Saturn’s irregular satellites. Icarus, 215, 260–278ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Thomson, F. S., Marouf, E. A., Tyler, G. L., French, R. G., & Rappoport, N. J. 2007, Periodic microstructure in Saturn’s rings A and B. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L24203ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Tiscareno, M. S. 2012, A modified “Type I migration” model for propeller moons in Saturn’s rings. Planet. Space Sci., in press (arXiv:1206.4942)Google Scholar
  222. Tiscareno, M. S., Burns, J. A., Hedman, M. M., Spitale, J. N., Porco, C. C., Murray, C. D., & Cassini Imaging Team, 2005, Wavy edges and other disturbances in Saturn’s Encke and Keeler gaps. AAS Div. Planet. Sci. Meet. Abstr., 37, 64.02ADSGoogle Scholar
  223. Tiscareno, M. S., Burns, J. A., Hedman, M. M., Porco, C. C., Weiss, J. W., Dones, L., Richardson, D. C., & Murray, C. D. 2006a, 100-metre-diameter moonlets in Saturn’s A ring from observations of “propeller” structures. Nature, 440, 648–650ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Tiscareno, M. S., Nicholson, P. D., Burns, J. A., Hedman, M. M., & Porco, C. C. 2006b, Unravelling temporal variability in Saturn’s spiral density waves: results and predictions. Astrophys. J. Lett., 651, L65–L68ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. Tiscareno, M. S., Burns, J. A., Nicholson, P. D., Hedman, M. M., & Porco, C. C. 2007, Cassini imaging of Saturn’s rings II. a wavelet technique for analysis of density waves and other radial structure in the rings. Icarus, 189, 14–34ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Tiscareno, M. S., Burns, J. A., Hedman, M. M., & Porco, C. C. 2008, The population of propellers in Saturn’s A ring. Astron. J., 135, 1083–1091ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. Tiscareno, M. S., Hedman, M. M., Burns, J. A., Weiss, J. W., & Porco, C. C. 2009a, Saturn’s A ring has no inner edge. AAS Div. Planet. Sci. Meet. Abstr., 41, 25.04ADSGoogle Scholar
  228. Tiscareno, M. S., Burns, J. A., Hedman, M. M., DiNino, D., Porco, C. C., Beurle, K., & Evans, M. W. 2009b, Observations of ejecta clouds produced by impacts onto Saturn’s rings. AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, P54A–08Google Scholar
  229. Tiscareno, M. S., Perrine, R. P., Richardson, D. C., Hedman, M. M., Weiss, J. W., Porco, C. C., & Burns, J. A. 2010a, An analytic parameterization of self-gravity wakes in Saturn’s rings. Astron. J., 139, 492–503ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. Tiscareno, M. S., Burns, J. A., Cuzzi, J. N., & Hedman, M. M. 2010b, Cassini imaging search rules out rings around Rhea. Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L14205ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. Tiscareno, M. S., et al. 2010c, Physical characteristics and non-keplerian orbital motion of “propeller” moons embedded in Saturn’s rings. Astrophys. J. Lett., 718, L92–L96ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. Torrence, C., & Compo, G. P. 1998, A practical guide to wavelet analysis. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 79, 61–78 http://atoc.colorado.edu/research/wavelets/
  233. Torrey, P. A., Tiscareno, M. S., Burns, J. A., & Porco, C. C. 2008, Mapping complexity: the wavy edges of the Encke and Keeler gaps in Saturn’s rings. AAS Div. Dyn. Astron. Meet. Abstr., 39, 15.19Google Scholar
  234. Van Helden, A. 1984, Saturn through the telescope: a brief historical survey, in Saturn, ed. T. Gehrels, & M. S. Matthews (Tucson: University of Arizona Press), 23–43Google Scholar
  235. Verbiscer, A. J., Skrutskie, M. F., & Hamilton, D. P. 2009, Saturn’s largest ring. Nature, 461, 1098–1100ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. Ward, W. R. 1986, Density waves in the solar nebula: differential Lindblad torque. Icarus, 67, 164–180ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. Ward, W. R. 1997, Survival of planetary systems. Astrophys. J. Lett., 482, L211–L214ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. Weiss, J. W. 2005, The physics of unconstrained edges in planetary rings. Ph.D. Thesis, University of ColoradoGoogle Scholar
  239. Weiss, J. W., Porco, C. C., & Tiscareno, M. S. 2009, Ring edge waves and the masses of nearby satellites. Astron. J., 138, 272–286ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. Winter, O. C., Mourão, D. C., Giuliatti Winter, S. M., Spahn, F., & da Cruz, C. 2007, Moonlets wandering on a leash-ring. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc., 380, L54–L57ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. Wisdom, J., & Holman, M. 1991, Symplectic maps for the n-body problem. Astron. J., 102, 1528–1538ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. Wisdom, J., & Tremaine, S. 1988, Local simulations of planetary rings. Astron. J., 95, 925–940ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. Zebker, H. A., Marouf, E. A., & Tyler, G. L. 1985, Saturn’s rings: particle size distributions for thin layer model. Icarus, 64, 531–548ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Matthew S. Tiscareno
    • 1
  1. 1.Center for Radiophysics and Space ResearchCornell UniversityIthacaNY, USA

Personalised recommendations