Mangroves are trees or shrubs that are generally found in intertidal environments in the tropics and subtropics. Most but not all mangroves are found in intertidal environments along deltaic coasts, lagoons, and estuarine shorelines. Under optimal conditions they form extensive and productive forests, reaching 30 m in height, with scattered and dwarf shrubs occurring under less optimal conditions. The origin of the word mangrove is uncertain, but it is commonly used interchangeably to refer to an individual plant or to an assemblage of plants. Mangroves are an ecological rather than a taxonomic assemblage with different numbers of species reported by different authorities. Largely based on whether or not the individual species that are exclusively or nonexclusively found in mangrove communities. The mangrove communities support many other organisms and provide many benefits to people.
KeywordsMangroves Mangal Biodiversity Coastal wetlands Coastal change Aquaculture Pollution Climate change
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