Restiad bogs, dominated by species in the predominantly Southern Hemisphere family Restionaceae, are most extensively developed on the temperate oceanic islands of New Zealand. They form raised and blanket bogs on mainly flat, poorly drained lowlands, but also occur in the montane and subalpine zones. The main peat forming species are Empodisma robustum (northern North Island), E. minus (central and southern North Island, and most of South and Stewart Islands), Sporadanthus ferrugineus (northern North Island), and S. traversii (Chatham Island). Empodisma minus also grows in south-eastern Australia. Since 1840, restiad bogs in the lowland zone have been much reduced by widespread agricultural development, associated with European settlement. As a result, some are now classified as threatened ecosystems, and most contain threatened plant and animal species. Recognition of the magnitude of this loss, ongoing threats to ecological integrity, and the important role of restiad bogs in providing ecosystem services has led to increased efforts to protect, manage, and restore them.
KeywordsEmpodisma minus Empodisma robustum Peatlands Restionaceae Sporadanthus ferrugineus Sporadanthus traversii
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