Abstract

The term “essential tremor” was first used by European physicians in the later decades of the nineteenth century to describe an inherited, constitutional malady characterized by kinetic tremor in the absence of other neurological signs. Essential tremor (ET) may be defined simply as a progressive, neurological disease in which the most recognizable and primary motor feature is a kinetic tremor of the arms. Other motor and non-motor features are often present as well, but it is the kinetic tremor of the arms that is the sine qua non of ET. Considerable evidence has accumulated in recent years that ET is a cerebellar/cerebellar systems disorder. Clinically, the presence in ET patients of intention tremor, gait ataxia, oculomotor abnormalities, and problems with dysrhythmia and motor learning converge upon the notion that ET is a disorder of cerebellar dysregulation. An array of neuroimaging studies indicate the presence not only of functional and metabolic abnormalities in the ET cerebellum, but of both gray and white matter structural abnormalities as well. In postmortem studies, the neuroanatomical changes in ET are thus far all localized to the cerebellum itself (esp. to Purkinje cells) or to a set of brainstem neurons that synapse directly with Purkinje cells. Additionally, deep brain stimulation surgery in ET targets the specific thalamic nucleus (ventral intermediate) that is the cerebellar receiving area. This chapter will expand upon the data underlying the emerging model of ET as a disorder of cerebellar structure and function.

Keywords

Purkinje Cell Lewy Body Essential Tremor Locus Ceruleus Inferior Olivary Nucleus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Ashenhurst EM (1973) The nature of essential tremor. Can Med Assoc J 109(9):876–878PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Avanzino L, Bove M et al (2009) Cerebellar involvement in timing accuracy of rhythmic finger movements in essential tremor. Eur J Neurosci 30(10):1971–1979PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Axelrad JE, Louis ED et al (2008) Reduced purkinje cell number in essential tremor: a postmortem study. Arch Neurol 65(1):101–107PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bain PG (1998) Clinical measurement of tremor. Mov Disord 13(Suppl 3):77–80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bain PG (2000) Tremor assessment and quality of life measurements. Neurology 54(11 Suppl 4):S26–S29PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bain PG, Mally J et al (1993) Assessing the impact of essential tremor on upper limb function. J Neurol 241(1):54–61PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bain PG, Findley LJ et al (1994) A study of hereditary essential tremor. Brain 117(Pt 4):805–824PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bain P, Brin M et al (2000) Criteria for the diagnosis of essential tremor. Neurology 54(11 Suppl 4):S7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bares M, Lungu OV et al (2010) Predictive motor timing performance dissociates between early diseases of the cerebellum and Parkinson’s disease. Cerebellum 9(1):124–135PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Baurle J, Grusser-Cornehls U (1994) Axonal torpedoes in cerebellar Purkinje cells of two normal mouse strains during aging. Acta Neuropathol 88(3):237–245PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Beach TG, Adler CH et al (2008) Reduced striatal tyrosine hydroxylase in incidental Lewy body disease. Acta Neuropathol 115(4):445–451PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Beaulieu JM, Nguyen MD et al (1999) Late onset of motor neurons in mice overexpressing wild-type peripherin. J Cell Biol 147(3):531–544PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Becker G, Muller A et al (2002) Early diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease. J Neurol 249(Suppl 3):III/40–III/48Google Scholar
  14. Benito-Leon J (2008) Essential tremor: from a monosymptomatic disorder to a more complex entity. Neuroepidemiology 31(3):191–192PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Benito-Leon J, Bermejo-Pareja F et al (2005) Incidence of essential tremor in three elderly populations of central Spain. Neurology 64(10):1721–1725PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Benito-Leon J, Louis ED et al (2006a) Elderly-onset essential tremor is associated with dementia. Neurology 66(10):1500–1505PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Benito-Leon J, Louis ED et al (2006b) Population-based case-control study of cognitive function in essential tremor. Neurology 66(1):69–74PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Benito-Leon J, Alvarez-Linera J et al (2009) Brain structural changes in essential tremor: voxel-based morphometry at 3-tesla. J Neurol Sci 287(1–2):138–142PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bermejo-Pareja F, Louis ED et al (2007) Risk of incident dementia in essential tremor: a population-based study. Mov Disord 22:1573–1580PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Boecker H, Weindl A et al (2010) GABAergic dysfunction in essential tremor: an 11 C-flumazenil PET study. J Nucl Med 51(7):1030–1035PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Brennan KC, Jurewicz EC et al (2002) Is essential tremor predominantly a kinetic or a postural tremor? A clinical and electrophysiological study. Mov Disord 17(2):313–316PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bucher SF, Seelos KC et al (1997) Activation mapping in essential tremor with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Ann Neurol 41(1):32–40PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cerasa A, Messina D et al (2009) Cerebellar atrophy in essential tremor using an automated segmentation method. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 30(6):1240–1243PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Chatterjee A, Jurewicz EC et al (2004) Personality in essential tremor: further evidence of non-motor manifestations of the disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 75(7):958–961PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cleveland DW, Rothstein JD (2001) From Charcot to Lou Gehrig: deciphering selective motor neuron death in ALS. Nat Rev Neurosci 2(11):806–819PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cohen O, Pullman S et al (2003) Rest tremor in patients with essential tremor: prevalence, clinical correlates, and electrophysiologic characteristics. Arch Neurol 60(3):405–410PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Colebatch JG, Findley LJ et al (1990) Preliminary report: activation of the cerebellum in essential tremor. Lancet 336(8722):1028–1030PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Critchley M (1949) Observations of essential (heredofamilial) tremor. Brain 72:113–139PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Daniels C, Peller M et al (2006) Voxel-based morphometry shows no decreases in cerebellar gray matter volume in essential tremor. Neurology 67(8):1452–1456PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Deng H, Le W et al (2007) Genetics of essential tremor. Brain 130(Pt 6):1456–1464PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Deuschl G, Elble RJ (2000) The pathophysiology of essential tremor. Neurology 54(11 Suppl 4):S14–S20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Deuschl G, Elble R (2009) Essential tremor – Neurodegenerative or nondegenerative disease towards a working definition of ET. Mov Disord 24(14):2033–2041PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Deuschl G, Bain P et al (1998) Consensus statement of the movement disorder society on tremor. Ad Hoc scientific committee. Mov Disord 13(Suppl 3):2–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Deuschl G, Wenzelburger R et al (2000) Essential tremor and cerebellar dysfunction clinical and kinematic analysis of intention tremor. Brain 123(Pt 8):1568–1580PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Dickson D, Ross GW, Cerosimo M et al (2004) Pathological investigation of essential tremor. Neurology 62:A537–A538Google Scholar
  36. Dogu O, Louis ED et al (2005) Clinical characteristics of essential tremor in Mersin, Turkey–a population-based door-to-door study. J Neurol 252(5):570–574PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Dotchin CL, Walker RW (2008) The prevalence of essential tremor in rural northern Tanzania. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 79(10):1107–1109PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Duesterhus P, Schimmelmann BG et al (2004) Huntington disease: a case study of early onset presenting as depression. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 43(10):1293–1297PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Elble RJ (2000a) Diagnostic criteria for essential tremor and differential diagnosis. Neurology 54(11 Suppl 4):S2–S6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Elble RJ (2000b) Essential tremor frequency decreases with time. Neurology 55(10):1547–1551PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Elble RJ (2002) Essential tremor is a monosymptomatic disorder. Mov Disord 17(4):633–637PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Elble RJ, Dubinsky RM et al (2007) Alzheimer's disease and essential tremor finally meet. Mov Disord 22(11):1525–1527PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Erickson-Davis CR, Faust PL et al (2010) “Hairy baskets” associated with degenerative Purkinje cell changes in essential tremor. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 69(3):262–271PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Farkas Z, Szirmai I et al (2006) Impaired rhythm generation in essential tremor. Mov Disord 21(8):1196–1199PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Foote SL, Bloom FE et al (1983) Nucleus locus ceruleus: new evidence of anatomical and physiological specificity. Physiol Rev 63(3):844–914PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Fritschy JM, Grzanna R (1989) Immunohistochemical analysis of the neurotoxic effects of DSP-4 identifies two populations of noradrenergic axon terminals. Neuroscience 30(1):181–197PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Gasparini M, Bonifati V et al (2001) Frontal lobe dysfunction in essential tremor: a preliminary study. J Neurol 248(5):399–402PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Greco CM, Hagerman RJ et al (2002) Neuronal intranuclear inclusions in a new cerebellar tremor/ataxia syndrome among fragile X carriers. Brain 125(Pt 8):1760–1771PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Helmchen C, Hagenow A et al (2003) Eye movement abnormalities in essential tremor may indicate cerebellar dysfunction. Brain 126(Pt 6):1319–1332PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hicks TP, Locock RA et al (1987) Is octopamine a “false transmitter”? Regional distribution and serial changes in octopamine and noradrenaline following locus coeruleus lesions. Brain Res 421(1–2):315–324PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Higginson CI, Wheelock VL et al (2008) Cognitive deficits in essential tremor consistent with frontosubcortical dysfunction. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol 15:1–6Google Scholar
  52. Hoffer BJ, Siggins GR et al (1973) Activation of the pathway from locus coeruleus to rat cerebellar Purkinje neurons: pharmacological evidence of noradrenergic central inhibition. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 184(3):553–569PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Hubble JP, Busenbark KL et al (1997) Clinical expression of essential tremor: effects of gender and age. Mov Disord 12(6):969–972PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Jenkins IH, Bain PG et al (1993) A positron emission tomography study of essential tremor: evidence for overactivity of cerebellar connections. Ann Neurol 34(1):82–90PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Klein JC, Lorenz B et al (2010) Diffusion tensor imaging of white matter involvement in essential tremor. Hum Brain Mapp. DOI:10.1002/hbm.21077Google Scholar
  56. Koehler PJ, Keyser A (1997) Tremor in Latin texts of Dutch physicians: 16th-18th centuries. Mov Disord 12(5):798–806PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Koeppen AH (2005) The pathogenesis of spinocerebellar ataxia. Cerebellum 4(1):62–73PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Koller WC, Rubino FA (1985) Combined resting-postural tremors. Arch Neurol 42(7):683–684PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Koller W, Biary N et al (1986) Disability in essential tremor: effect of treatment. Neurology 36(7):1001–1004PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Kronenbuerger M, Gerwig M et al (2007) Eyeblink conditioning is impaired in subjects with essential tremor. Brain 130(Pt 6):1538–1551PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Kuo SH, Erickson-Davis C et al (2010) Increased number of heterotopic Purkinje cells in essential tremor. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. DOI: 10.1136/jnnp.2010.213330Google Scholar
  62. Lacritz LH, Dewey R Jr et al (2002) Cognitive functioning in individuals with “benign” essential tremor. J Int Neuropsychol Soc 8(1):125–129PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Larsson T, Sjogren T (1960) Essential tremor: a clinical and genetic population study. Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl 36(144):1–176PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Leegwater-Kim J, Louis ED et al (2006) Intention tremor of the head in patients with essential tremor. Mov Disord 21(11):2001–2005PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Leentjens AF, Van den Akker M et al (2003) Higher incidence of depression preceding the onset of Parkinson’s disease: a register study. Mov Disord 18(4):414–418PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Liem RK, Leung CL (2003) Neuronal intermediate filament overexpression and neurodegeneration in transgenic mice. Exp Neurol 184(1):3–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Lombardi WJ, Woolston DJ et al (2001) Cognitive deficits in patients with essential tremor. Neurology 57(5):785–790PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Lorenz D, Deuschl G (2007) Update on pathogenesis and treatment of essential tremor. Curr Opin Neurol 20(4):447–452PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Lorenz D, Schwieger D et al (2006) Quality of life and personality in essential tremor patients. Mov Disord 21(8):1114–1118PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Lou JS, Jankovic J (1991) Essential tremor: clinical correlates in 350 patients. Neurology 41(2Pt 1):234–238PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Louis ED (1999) A new twist for stopping the shakes? Revisiting GABAergic therapy for essential tremor. Arch Neurol 56(7):807–808PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Louis ED (2000) Essential tremor. Arch Neurol 57(10):1522–1524PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Louis ED (2001) Clinical practice. Essential tremor. N Engl J Med 345(12):887–891PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Louis ED (2008) Environmental epidemiology of essential tremor. Neuroepidemiology 31(3):139–149PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Louis ED (2010a) Functional correlates of lower cognitive test scores in essential tremor. Mov Disord 25(4):481–485PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Louis ED (2010b) Essential tremor as a neuropsychiatric disorder. J Neurol Sci 289(1–2):144–148PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Louis ED (2010c) Essential tremor: evolving clinicopathological concepts in an era of intensive post-mortem enquiry. Lancet Neurol 9(6):613–622PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Louis ED, Dogu O (2009) Isolated head tremor: part of the clinical spectrum of essential tremor? Data from population-based and clinic-based case samples. Mov Disord 24(15):2281–2285PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Louis ED, Ferreira JJ (2010) How common is the most common adult movement disorder? Update on the worldwide prevalence of essential tremor. Mov Disord 25(5):534–541PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Louis ED, Vonsattel JP (2007) The emerging neuropathology of essential tremor. Mov Disord 23(2):174–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Louis ED, Ottman R et al (1997) The Washington heights-inwood genetic study of essential tremor: methodologic issues in essential-tremor research. Neuroepidemiology 16(3):124–133PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Louis ED, Ford B et al (1998a) Diagnostic criteria for essential tremor: a population perspective. Arch Neurol 55(6):823–828PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Louis ED, Ford B et al (1998b) Clinical characteristics of essential tremor: data from a community-based study. Mov Disord 13(5):803–808PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Louis ED, Wendt KJ et al (1999) Validity of a performance-based test of function in essential tremor. Arch Neurol 56(7):841–846PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Louis ED, Barnes LF et al (2000a) Validity and test-retest reliability of a disability questionnaire for essential tremor. Mov Disord 15(3):516–523PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Louis ED, Ford B et al (2000b) Clinical subtypes of essential tremor. Arch Neurol 57(8):1194–1198PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Louis ED, Barnes L et al (2001a) Correlates of functional disability in essential tremor. Mov Disord 16(5):914–920PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Louis ED, Ford B et al (2001b) Risk of tremor and impairment from tremor in relatives of patients with essential tremor: a community-based family study. Ann Neurol 49(6):761–769PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Louis ED, Shungu DC et al (2002) Metabolic abnormality in the cerebellum in patients with essential tremor: a proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging study. Neurosci Lett 333(1):17–20PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Louis ED, Ford B et al (2003a) Factors associated with increased risk of head tremor in essential tremor: a community-based study in northern Manhattan. Mov Disord 18(4):432–436PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Louis ED, Jurewicz EC et al (2003b) Community-based data on associations of disease duration and age with severity of essential tremor: implications for disease pathophysiology. Mov Disord 18(1):90–93PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Louis ED, Honig LS et al (2005) Essential tremor associated with focal nonnigral Lewy bodies: a clinicopathologic study. Arch Neurol 62(6):1004–1007PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Louis E, Moskowitz C et al (2006a) Parkinsonism, dysautonomia, and intranuclear inclusions in a fragile X carrier: a clinical-pathological study. Mov Disord 21(3):420–425PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Louis ED, Rios E et al (2006b) Jaw tremor: prevalence and clinical correlates in three essential tremor case samples. Mov Disord 21(11):1872–1878PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Louis ED, Vonsattel JP et al (2006c) Essential tremor associated with pathologic changes in the cerebellum. Arch Neurol 63(8):1189–1193PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Louis ED, Vonsattel JP et al (2006d) Neuropathologic findings in essential tremor. Neurology 66(11):1756–1759PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Louis ED, Benito-Leon J et al (2007a) Self-reported depression and anti-depressant medication use in essential tremor: cross-sectional and prospective analyses in a population-based study. Eur J Neurol 14(10):1138–1146PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Louis ED, Faust PL et al (2007b) Neuropathological changes in essential tremor: 33 cases compared with 21 controls. Brain 130(Pt 12):3297–3307PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Louis ED, Benito-Leon J et al (2008a) Philadelphia Geriatric Morale Scale in essential tremor: a population-based study in three Spanish communities. Mov Disord 23(10):1435–1440PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Louis ED, Broussolle E et al (2008b) Historical underpinnings of the term essential tremor in the late 19th century. Neurology 71(11):856–859PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Louis ED, Faust PL et al (2009a) Older onset essential tremor: more rapid progression and more degenerative pathology. Mov Disord 24(11):1606–1612PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Louis ED, Faust PL et al (2009b) Torpedoes in Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, essential tremor, and control brains. Mov Disord 24(11):1600–1605PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Louis ED, Frucht SJ et al (2009c) Intention tremor in essential tremor: prevalence and association with disease duration. Mov Disord 24:626–627PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Louis ED, Thawani SP et al (2009d) Prevalence of essential tremor in a multiethnic, community-based study in northern Manhattan, New York, N.Y. Neuroepidemiology 32(3):208–214PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Louis ED, Yi H et al (2009e) Structural study of Purkinje cell axonal torpedoes in essential tremor. Neurosci Lett 450(3):287–291PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Louis ED, Agnew A, Gillman A, Gerbin M, Viner AS (2010a) Estimating annual rate of decline: prospective, longitudinal data on arm tremor severity in two groups of essential tremor cases. J Neurology Neurosurg Psychiatry. DOI:10.1136/jnnp.2010.229740Google Scholar
  107. Louis ED, Benito-Leon J et al (2010b) Cognitive and motor functional activity in non-demented community-dwelling essential tremor cases. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 81(9):997–1001PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Louis ED, Benito-Leon J et al (2010c) Faster rate of cognitive decline in essential tremor cases than controls: a prospective study. Eur J Neurol 17(10):1291–1297PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Louis ED, Erickson-Davis C et al (2010d) Essential tremor with ubiquitinated Purkinje cell intranuclear inclusions. Acta Neuropathol 119(3):375–377PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Louis ED, Rios E et al (2010e) Tandem gait performance in essential tremor: clinical correlates and association with midline tremors. Mov Disord 25(11):1633–1638PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Louis ED, Asabere N et al (2011) Rest tremor in advanced essential tremor: a post-mortem study of nine cases. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2011(82):261–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Maier SE, West JR (2003) Alcohol and nutritional control treatments during neurogenesis in rat brain reduce total neuron number in locus coeruleus, but not in cerebellum or inferior olive. Alcohol 30(1):67–74PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Mally J, Baranyi M et al (1996) Change in the concentrations of amino acids in CSF and serum of patients with essential tremor. J Neural Transm 103(5):555–560PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Martinelli P, Rizzo G et al (2007) Diffusion-weighted imaging study of patients with essential tremor. Mov Disord 22(8):1182–1185PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Mavridis M, Degryse AD et al (1991) Effects of locus coeruleus lesions on parkinsonian signs, striatal dopamine and substantia nigra cell loss after 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine in monkeys: a possible role for the locus coeruleus in the progression of Parkinson’s disease. Neuroscience 41(2–3):507–523PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Miller KM, Okun MS et al (2007) Depression symptoms in movement disorders: comparing Parkinson’s disease, dystonia, and essential tremor. Mov Disord 22(5):666–672PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Mizuno Y, Takeuchi T et al (2003) Expression of nestin in Purkinje cells in patients with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Neurosci Lett 352(2):109–112PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Mizushima S, Oyanagi S (1976) An ultrastructural observation of torpedoes in the human degenerative cerebellum. J Clinical Electron Microscopy 9:672–673Google Scholar
  119. Moises HC, Woodward DJ (1980) Potentiation of GABA inhibitory action in cerebrllum by locus coeruleus stimulation. Brain Res 182(2):327–344PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Moises HC, Waterhouse BD et al (1981) Locus coeruleus stimulation potentiates Purkinje cell responses to afferent input: the climbing fiber system. Brain Res 222(1):43–64PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Morton SM, Bastian AJ (2004) Cerebellar control of balance and locomotion. Neuroscientist 10(3):247–259PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Nahab FB, Peckham E et al (2007) Essential tremor, deceptively simple. Pract Neurol 7(4):222–233PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Nakamura R, Kurita K et al (1999) An immunohistochemical study of Purkinje cells in a case of hereditary cerebellar cortical atrophy. Acta Neuropathol 97(2):196–200PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Nguyen HV, Ngian V et al (2007) Quality of life in a random sample of community dwelling older patients with essential tremor. Acta Neurol Scand 116(5):289–292PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Nicoletti G, Manners D et al (2010) Diffusion tensor MRI changes in cerebellar structures of patients with familial essential tremor. Neurology 74(12):988–994PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Olson L, Fuxe K (1971) On the projections from the locus coeruleus noradrealine neurons: the cerebellar innervation. Brain Res 28(1):165–171PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Pagan FL, Butman JA et al (2003) Evaluation of essential tremor with multi-voxel magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Neurology 60(8):1344–1347PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Palliyath S, Hallett M et al (1998) Gait in patients with cerebellar ataxia. Mov Disord 13(6):958–964PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Parisi SL, Heroux ME et al (2006) Functional mobility and postural control in essential tremor. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 87(10):1357–1364PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Poston KL, Rios E et al (2009) Action tremor of the legs in essential tremor: prevalence, clinical correlates, and comparison with age-matched controls. Parkinsonism Relat Disord 15(8):602–605PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Putzke JD, Whaley NR et al (2006) Essential tremor: predictors of disease progression in a clinical cohort. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 77(11):1235–1237PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Quattrone A, Cerasa A et al (2008) Essential head tremor is associated with cerebellar vermis atrophy: a volumetric and voxel-based morphometry MR imaging study. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 29(9):1692–1697PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Rajput AH, Rozdilsky B et al (1991) Clinicopathologic observations in essential tremor: report of six cases. Neurology 41(9):1422–1424PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Rajput AH, Rozdilsky B et al (1993) Significance of parkinsonian manifestations in essential tremor. Can J Neurol Sci 20(2):114–117PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Rajput A, Robinson CA et al (2004) Essential tremor course and disability: a clinicopathologic study of 20 cases. Neurology 62(6):932–936PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Rajput AH, Robinson CA et al (2011) Cerebellar Purkinje cell loss is not pathognomonic of essential tremor. Parkinsonism Relat Disord (17):16–21PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Rao AK, Gillman A, Louis ED Quantitative gait analysis in elderly essential tremor cases and age-matched controls. DOI: 10.1016/j.gait.post.2011.03.013Google Scholar
  138. Rautakorpi I (1978) Essential tremor. An epidemiological, clinical and genetic study. Academic Dissertation University of Turku, FinlandGoogle Scholar
  139. Robain O, Lanfumey L et al (1985) Developmental changes in the cerebellar cortex after locus ceruleus lesion with 6-hydroxydopamine in the rat. Exp Neurol 88(1):150–164PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Robertson J, Kriz J et al (2002) Pathways to motor neuron degeneration in transgenic mouse models. Biochimie 84(11):1151–1160PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Rogers J, Zornetzer SF et al (1981) Senescent pathology of cerebellum: purkinje neurons and their parallel fiber afferents. Neurobiol Aging 2(1):15–25PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Rolfs A, Koeppen AH et al (2003) Clinical features and neuropathology of autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA17). Ann Neurol 54(3):367–375PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Sahin HA, Terzi M et al (2006) Frontal functions in young patients with essential tremor: a case comparison study. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 18(1):64–72PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Saito Y, Ruberu NN et al (2004) Lewy body-related alpha-synucleinopathy in aging. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 63(7):742–749PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Schneier FR, Barnes LF et al (2001) Characteristics of social phobia among persons with essential tremor. J Clin Psychiatry 62(5):367–372PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Schuurman AG, van den Akker M et al (2002) Increased risk of Parkinson’s disease after depression: a retrospective cohort study. Neurology 58(10):1501–1504PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Shill HA, Adler CH et al (2008) Pathologic findings in prospectively ascertained essential tremor subjects. Neurology 70(16 Pt 2):1452–1455PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Shill HA, De La Vega FJ et al (2009) Motor learning in essential tremor. Mov Disord 24(6):926–928PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Shin DH, Han BS et al (2008) Diffusion tensor imaging in patients with essential tremor. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 29(1):151–153PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Sievers J, Klemm HP (1982) Locus coeruleus – cerebellum: interaction during development. Bibl Anat 23:56–75PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Sievers J, Berry M et al (1981) The role of noradrenergic fibres in the control of post-natal cerebellar development. Brain Res 207(1):200–208PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Singer C, Sanchez-Ramos J et al (1994) Gait abnormality in essential tremor. Mov Disord 9(2):193–196PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Slemmer JE, De Zeeuw CI et al (2005) Don't get too excited: mechanisms of glutamate-mediated Purkinje cell death. Prog Brain Res 148:367–390PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Stolze H, Petersen G et al (2001) The gait disorder of advanced essential tremor. Brain 124(Pt 11):2278–2286PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Stolze H, Klebe S et al (2002) Typical features of cerebellar ataxic gait. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 73(3):310–312PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Sulica L, Louis ED (2010) Clinical characteristics of essential voice tremor: a study of 34 cases. Laryngoscope 120(3):516–528PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Takahashi N, Iwatsubo T et al (1992) Focal appearance of cerebellar torpedoes associated with discrete lesions in the cerebellar white matter. Acta Neuropathol 84(2):153–156PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Tan EK, Fook-Chong S et al (2005) Non-motor manifestations in essential tremor: use of a validated instrument to evaluate a wide spectrum of symptoms. Parkinsonism Relat Disord 11(6):375–380PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Thawani SP, Schupf N et al (2009) Essential tremor is associated with dementia: prospective population-based study in New York. Neurology 73(8):621–625PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Trillenberg P, Fuhrer J et al (2006) Eye-hand coordination in essential tremor. Mov Disord 21(3):373–379PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Troster AI, Fields JA et al (1999) Neuropsychological and quality of life outcome after thalamic stimulation for essential tremor. Neurology 53(8):1774–1780PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Troster AI, Woods SP et al (2002) Neuropsychological deficits in essential tremor: an expression of cerebello-thalamo-cortical pathophysiology? Eur J Neurol 9(2):143–151PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Troster AI, Pahwa R et al (2005) Quality of life in essential tremor questionnaire (QUEST): development and initial validation. Parkinsonism Relat Disord 11(6):367–373PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Wang Y, Freund RK et al (1999) Potentiation of ethanol effects in cerebellum by activation of endogenous noradrenergic inputs. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 288(1):211–220PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Wills AJ, Jenkins IH et al (1994) Red nuclear and cerebellar but no olivary activation associated with essential tremor: a positron emission tomographic study. Ann Neurol 36(4):636–642PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Yaginuma M, Ishida K et al (2000) Paraneoplastic cerebellar ataxia with mild cerebello-olivary degeneration and an anti-neuronal antibody: a clinicopathological study. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 26(6):568–571PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Zesiewicz TA, Elble R et al (2005) Practice parameter: therapies for essential tremor: report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology 64(12):2008–2020PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.GH Sergievsky CenterCollege of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia UniversityNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Department of NeurologyCollege of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia UniversityNew YorkUSA
  3. 3.Taub Institute for Research on Alzheimer’s Disease and the Aging BrainCollege of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia UniversityNew YorkUSA
  4. 4.Department of EpidemiologyMailman School of Public Health, Columbia UniversityNew YorkUSA
  5. 5.Unit 198Neurological InstituteNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations