Handbook of the Cerebellum and Cerebellar Disorders pp 1687-1699 | Cite as
Cerebellum and Cognition
Despite the idea that cerebellar input into cognition is a new concept, looking back in history one can see that this function of the cerebellum has long been discussed and was merely forgotten in the middle of the last century! Over the last several decades, the importance of the cerebellum in cognitive development has been shown in many areas. Children who suffer from congenital cerebellar malformations such as cerebellar hypoplasia or Joubert syndrome experience, in addition to motor problems, marked cognitive deficits. The degree of congenital or early acquired cerebellar damage is related to the degree of developmental problems later, as shown for preterm babies. There are many childhood developmental problems, such as fragile X syndrome, ADHD, dyslexia, and autism, where it can be shown that the degree of cerebellar structural abnormalities relates to cognitive deficits. In later acquired problems, such as infratentorial brain tumors or strokes, and late-onset cerebellar disorders, such as Friedreich’s ataxia or Louis-Bar syndrome, data show the importance of an intact cerebellum for the normal development of children. The degree of cerebellar atrophy in children after brain trauma or oncological treatments is a prognostic signpost for cognitive problems.
Recent functional neuroimaging data support these clinical observations: the posterior lobe and lobule VI of the cerebellum seem to be involved in higher-level tasks such as verbal and working memory and executive functions. There are also data supporting a lateralized function: logical reasoning and language processing on the right side and visuospatial and attentional skills on the left side of the cerebellum.
In summary, normal development of cognition seems to depend on an active interplay between cerebrum and cerebellum. The earlier in life and the more pronounced the disturbance of this interplay, the more the cognitive development of these children is hindered.
KeywordsDown Syndrome Cognitive Problem Cerebellar Volume Cerebellar Hypoplasia Arterial Ischemic Stroke
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