- 899 Downloads
Based on the assumptions that women differ from men in their social positions and that those differences consist of asymmetric, unequal power relations between the genders, “women’s empowerment” refers to the process of increasing women’s access to control over the strategic life choices that affect them and access to the opportunities that allow them fully to realize their capacities. Women’s empowerment as an economic, political, and sociocultural process challenges the system of sexual stratification that has resulted in women’s subordination and marginalization in order to improve women’s quality of life.
The notion of women’s empowerment entails three key elements: power, autonomy, and subjectivity.
First, three alternative sources of power increase women’s ability to make strategic choices in their lives: “power with,” “power to,” and “power within.” “Power with” is the group- or collective-based...
- Chant, S. (2006). Contribution of a gender perspective to the analysis of poverty. In J. S. Jaquette & G. Summerfield (Eds.), Women and gender equity in development theory and practice. Institutions, resources, and mobilization. Durham/London: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
- Cornwall, A., & Brock, K. (2005). What do Buzzwords do for development policy? A critical look at ‘participation’, ‘empowerment’ and ‘poverty reduction’. Third World Quarterly, 26(7), 1043–1060.Google Scholar
- Fujikake, Y. (2010). Methodologies for evaluating women’s empowerment in poverty alleviation programmes: Illustrations from Paraguay and Honduras. In S. Chant (Ed.), The international handbook of gender and poverty. Chelteham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
- Kabeer, N. (1999). Resources, agency, achievements: Reflections on the measurement of women’s empowerment. Development and Change, 30, 435–464.Google Scholar
- Kesby, M. (2005). Retheorizing empowerment? Through? Participation as a performance in space: Beyond tyranny to transformation. Signs, 30(4), 2037–2065.Google Scholar
- Malhotra, A., Schuler, S., Boender, C. (2002). Measuring women’s empowerment as a variable in international development. Paper commissioned by the World Bank Gender and Development Group and World Bank Social Development Group, Washington DC. Final draft June 28, 2002.Google Scholar
- Moser, C. (1993). Gender planning and development: Theory, practice and training. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Oxaal, Z., Baden, S. (1997). Gender and empowerment: Definitions, approaches and implications for policy. BRIDGE report, No. 40, IDS/University of Sussex, October 1997.Google Scholar
- Schuler, S. R., Hashemi, S. M., & Pandit, H. (1995). Beyond credit: SEWA’s approach to women’s reproductive lives in Urban India. JSI Research Report. SEWA Academy, Self Employed Women’s Association (SEWA), Ahmedabad, India.Google Scholar
- Schuler, S. R., Jenkins, A. H., & Townsend, J. W. (1995). Credit, women’s status and fertility regulation in urban market Centers of Bolivia. JSI Working Paper No. 8. Washington: John Snow.Google Scholar
- Sen, G., & Grown, C. (1988). Development, crisis and alternative visions. Third World women’s perspectives. London: Earthscan.Google Scholar
- Stanley, L., & Wise, S. (1983). Breaking out: Feminist ontology and epistemology. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Veneklasen, L., & Miller, V. (2002). Power and empowerment. PLA Notes, 43, 39–41.Google Scholar